Factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among women who delivered at intermediate hospital oshakati, Namibia

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    Background: Globally, the leading cause of death among females aged 15-49 years old is maternal mortality. More than 1,500 women die each day from pregnancy related causes resulting in an estimated 550,000 maternal deaths annually. We identified risk factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Methods: We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study, in which we administered a structured questionnaire through face to face interviews. We also applied the multivariate logistic regression model to determine factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Results: We enrolled a total of 306 pregnant women of whom 50% (n=153) were 12-19 years old and 50% (n=153) were 20-45 years old. Maternal death occurred only in the 20-45 years old mothers (6/153, 3.9%). In multivariate analysis, living in a rural area (aOR2.00, 95% CI: 1.08 to 3.69, p=0.027), shorter gestational period [32-37 weeks] (aOR4.84, 95% CI: 2.31 to 10.14, p=0.0007), haemoglobin level <10gm% (aOR3.87, 95%CI: 1.79 to 8.39, p=0.001), obesity [BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2] (aOR4.89, 95% CI: 1.38 to 17.37, p=0.014) and moderately high blood pressure [SBP/DBP of 150/100-159/109] (aOR15.15, 95% CI: 1.78 to 128.68, p=0.013) were significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Conclusion: In this study, we identified living in a rural area, shorter gestational period, haemoglobin level < 10gm%, obesity, and having moderately high blood pressure to be risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. All the maternal deaths were in the 20-45 years old pregnant mothers. We recommend educating women on these risk factors in order to reduce the burden of adverse pregnancy outcomes.


  • Keywords


    Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes; Intermediate Hospital Oshakati; Angola; Namibia.

  • References


      [1] Abalos E, Duley L, Steyn DW, Henderson-Smart DJ. Antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002252.pub2.

      [2] Callaway, L. K., Prins, J. B., Chang, A. M., & McIntyre, H. D. (2006). The Prevalence and Impact of overweight of overweight and obesity in an Australian obstetric population. Med J Aust, 56-59.

      [3] CDC. (2010). Advanced Management and Analysis of Data Using Epi Info for Windows. Zimbwabwe: CDC.

      [4] Chen Z, Du J, Shao L, et al. Pre pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and pregnancy outcomes in China. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2010; 109:41–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2009.10.015.

      [5] Haider BA, Olofin I, Wang M, Spiegelman D, Ezzati M, Fawzi WW. Anaemia, prenatal iron use, and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013; 346:f3443. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f3443.

      [6] https://www.winthrop.org/departments/institutes/family/ob-gyn. (n.d.). Maternal-Fetal-Medicine/Adverse-Pregnancy-Outcomes. Maternal-Fetal-Medicine/Adverse-Pregnancy-Outcomes.

      [7] JDK Ngowa, A Ngassam, JS Dohbit, C Nzedjom, JM Kasia Pregnancy outcome at advanced maternal age in a group of African women in two teaching hospitals in Yaounde, Cameroon Pan Afr Med J, 14 (2013) 134.

      [8] Latifah A. Rahman, Noran N. Hairi and NooriahSalleh. Association between Pregnancy Induced Hypertension and Low Birth Weight; A Population Based Case-Control Study. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2008; Basu JK, Jeketera CM, Basu D. Obesity and its outcomes among pregnant South African women. Int J GynaecolObstet 2010; 110:101–104.

      [9] LC Kenny, T Lavender, R McNamee, SM O'Neill, T Mills, AS Khashan Advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcome: evidence from a large contemporary cohort PLoS One, 8 (2013), p. e56583. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056583.

      [10] M Carolan, D Frankowska Advanced maternal age and adverse perinatal outcome; a review of the evidence,Midwifery, 27 (2011), pp. 793–801. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2010.07.006.

      [11] Ministry of Health and Child Welfare Zimbabwe (2007). Maternal and Perinatal Mortality Study. Harare, Zimbabwe. P17-24.

      [12] Ministry of Health and Social Services (2011). Namibia Demographic Health Survey 2006/2007. Windhoek,Namibia.

      [13] Ministry of Health and Social Services (2014). Annual report 2013/2014, Windhoek, Namibia.

      [14] Rayis DA, Abbaker AO, Salih Y, Adam I. Obesity and pregnancy outcome in Khartoum, Sudan. Int J GynaecolObstet 2011; 113:160–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.12.008.

      [15] Roberfroid D, Huybregts L, Lanou H, Henry MC, Meda N, Menten J, Kolsteren P. Effects of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on fetal growth: a double-blind randomized controlled trial in rural Burkina Faso. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88(5):1330–1340.

      [16] Tachiweyika Emmanuel, Gombe Notion, Shambira Gerald, ChadambukaAddmore, TshimamgaMufuta, ZizhouSimukai; Determinants of perinatal mortality in Marondera district, Mashonaland East Province of Zimbabwe, 2009.

      [17] Uganda Bureau of Statistics II. Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Uganda: Kampala; 2012.

      [18] UN.GeneralAssembly.Geneva: Human Rights Council, 2009 Preventable maternal Mortality and Morbidity and Human Rights.

      [19] WHO. (2010). Nigeria national health report. Geneva: WHO.

      [20] WHO (2012). Born too soon: the global report on preterm birth. Geneva: World Health Organisation.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 6939
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijm.v5i1.6939




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.