Heavy metals assessment of soils in and around Kama-Otto and Kwotto artisanal mining of mica, cassiterite and tantalite in Nasarawa state, Nigeria
Keywords:Artisanal Mining, Geo-Accumulating Index, Heavy Metals, Nemerow Index Method.
This study assesses the level of heavy metal in Soils within the vicinity of artisanal mining of Mica, Cassiterite and Tantalite in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Soil samples of Kama-otto and Kwotto artisanal mining were collected and analyzed using mass-plasma Atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES). Samples were also collected in Angwan-Mada, a non-artisanal mining environment, for comparison. Pollution assessment of soil samples using the following geochemical parameters such as contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and Enrichment factor (EF), Nemerow index method (IIN) and Geo-accumulating index (Igeo) were carried out. The results indicate an elevation in pollution status in the order of Kama-otto mining, Kwotto mining, Kama-otto, Kwotto and Angwan-mada. The concentrations of Cd, Cr and Mn were significant in the sampled areas (P < 0.05).
 Zhou, J. Dang, Z. Cai, M. and Liu, C. (2007). Soil heavy metal pollution around the Dabaoshan mine, Guangdong province, China. Pedosphere, 17, 588â€“594. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(07)60069-1.
 Luo, Y. (2009). Trends in soil environmental pollution and the prevention-controlling-remediation strategies in China. Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control, 31, pp. 27â€“31.
 Yang Guan, Chaofeng Shao and Meiting Ju. (2014). Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment and Partition for Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11, 7286-7303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110707286.
 Tsuzuki K, Sugiyama M, Haramaki N. (1994), DNA Single-strand Breaks and Cytotoxicity Induced by Chromate (VI), Cadmium (II), and Mercury (II) in Hydrogen Peroxide-resistant Cell Lines. Environ Health Perspect, 102:341â€“342 https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.94102s3341.
 Josephat, A. M. Saria (2016). Health Risk Assessment Of Heavy Metals Via Consumption Of Contaminated Vegetables Cultivated At Dar Es Salaam And Morogoro Regions In Tanzania. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science Studies, Vol. 2(11)
 Adamu, C.I. Nganje, T.N. and Edet, A. (2015) Major and trace elements pollution of sediments associated with 1 Abandoned Barite Mines in parts of Oban Massif and Mamfe Embayment, SE Nigeria, Journal of Geochemical Exploration. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.12.010.
 Mulligan D (1996). Environmental Management in Australian Minerals and Energy Industries. Principles and Practice, Sydney, Australia.
 Ahmed, Y.M. and Oruonye, E.D. (2016) Ecological impact of artisanal and small-scale mining in parts of Taraba state, Nigeria. Global Advanced Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology Vol. 5(1) pp. 001-008,
 Oladipo S.O. (2006). Status of Nigerian Mineral Resource Industries (ASSM Perspectives). Being a presentation at the Nigerian Mining and Geosciences International Conference, Kaduna.
 Tchounwou P.B. Yedjou C.G. Patlolla A.K. and Sutton D.J. (2012) Heavy Metal Toxicity and the Environment. In: Luch A. (eds) Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology. Experientia Supplementum, vol 101. Springer, Basel https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7643-8340-4_6.
 Shen, Z. Li, X. Wang, C. Chen, H. and Chua, H. (2002) â€œLead phytoextraction from contaminated soil with high-biomass plant species,â€ Journal of Environmental Quality, 31(6), pp.1893â€“1900. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2002.1893.
 Chibuike, G. U. and Obiora, S. C. (2014) Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Applied and Environmental Soil Science, Article ID 752708, 12 pages
 Sobolev, D. and Begonia, M. (2008). Effects of heavy metal contamination upon soil microbes: Lead-induced changes in general and denitrifying microbial communities as evidenced by molecular markers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Five, 450â€“456. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph5050450.
 Wei, B. and Yang, L. (2010). A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Micro-chemical Journal. 94, 99â€“107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2009.09.014.
 Oyekunle, J.A.O. Adekunle, A.S. Ogunfow okan, A.S., Akanni M.S. and Coker, O.S. (2012). Agama Lizard: A potential biomarker of Environmental Heavy metal pollution Assessment. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6 (12):458 â€“ 463. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJEST12.073.
 Cui, B. Wang, L. Zhang, G. Sun, Shi. Geng, N. Ru, S. and Chen, G. (2012). Status and harm of heavy metal pollution in doil and tesearch progress in remediation technology. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 2012, 40, 373â€“375. (In Chinese)
 Adelekan, B.A. Abegunde, K.D. (2011). Heavy Metals Contamination of Soil and Groundwater at Automobile Mechanic Villages in Ibadan Nigeria. International journal of physical sciences, 6(5):1045-1058.
 MÃ¼ller, G. (1969). Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. Geological Journal, Vol. 2 pp. 108â€“118.
 Nuhu, A.A. Sallau, M.S and Majiya, M.H. (2014) Heavy Metal Pollution: The Environmental Impact of Artisanal Gold Mining on Bagega Village of Zamfara State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 5(6) Pp 306-313
 Edori, O.S. and Kpee, F. (2017). Index Models Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils within Selected Abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Singapore Journal of Scientific Research, 2017.9.15 https://doi.org/10.3923/sjsres.2017.9.15.
 FÃ¶rstner, U. Ahlf, W. Calmano, W. and Kersten, M. (1990) Sediment Criteria Development; Springer: Berlin, Germany. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-75097-7_18.
 Fernando Santos-FrancÃ©s , Antonio MartÃnez-GraÃ±a , Pilar Alonso Rojo and Antonio GarcÃa SÃ¡nchez. (2017) Geochemical Background and Baseline Values Determination and Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of the Andes Mountain Range (Cajamarca-Huancavelica, Peru). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14, 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080859.
 Boamponsem, L. K., Adam, J. I., Dampare, S.B., E. Owusu-Ansah and Addae, G. (2010). Heavy metals level in streams of Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2(3):504-527.
 Ata, S., Farid, M. and Soroush, M. (2009). Heavy Metal Contamination and Distribution in the Shiraz Industrial Complex Zone Soil, South Shiraz, Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 6 (3):413-425.
 Bhupander, K. Sanjay, K. Meenu, M. Prakash, D. Singh, S. K. Sharma, C. S. and Mukherjee, D. P. (2011). An assessment of heavy metals in sediments from two tributaries of lower stretch of Hugli estuary in West Bengal. Archives of Applied Science Research, 3 (4): Pp. 139-146
 Ong, M. C. Menier, D. Z. Shazili, N. A. M. and Kamaruzzaman, B. Y. (2012). Geochemical Characteristics of Heavy Metals Concentration in Sediments of Quiberon Bay Waters, South Brittany, France. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 29(1):39-45. https://doi.org/10.13005/ojc/290106.
 Hernadez, L. Probst, J. L. and Ulrich, E. (2003). Heavy Metal Distribution in Some Frech Forest Soil, Evidence for Atmospheric Contamination. The Science of the Total Environment, 312: 195-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00223-7.
 Selvaraj, K. Ram-Mohan V and Szefer, P. (2004). Evaluation of metal contamination in coastal sediments of the Bay of Bengal, India: geochemical and statistical approaches. Mar Pollut Bull 49: 174-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.02.006.
 Sutherland RA (2000) Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental Geology 39: 611-626. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540050473.
 Turekian, K. K. and Wedephol, K. H. 1961). Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earthâ€™s crust. Bulletin of Geological Survey of America, 72. 175 - 227 https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1961)72[175:DOTEIS]2.0.CO;2.