Alpha–conotoxin, omega–conotoxin and mu–conotoxin time–resolved absorption and resonance FT–IR and Raman biospectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) investigation of vibronic–mode coupling structure in vibrational spectra analysis


  • Alireza Heidari Faculty of Chemistry, California South University (CSU), Irvine, California, USA
  • Jennifer Esposito Faculty of Chemistry, California South University (CSU), Irvine, California, USA
  • Angela Caissutti Faculty of Chemistry, California South University (CSU), Irvine, California, USA







A Conotoxin is one of a group of neurotoxic peptides isolated from the venom of the marine cone snail, genus Conus. Conotoxins, which are peptides consisting of 10 to 30 amino acid residues, typically have one or more disulfide bonds. Conotoxins have a variety of mechanisms of actions, most of which have not been determined. However, it appears that many of these peptides modulate the activity of ion channels. Over the last few decades Conotoxins have been the subject of pharmacological interest. Parameters such as FT­–IR and Raman vibrational wavelengths and intensities for single crystal Alpha–Conotoxin, Omega–Conotoxin and Mu–Conotoxin are calculated using density functional theory and were compared with empirical results. The investigation about vibrational spectrum of cycle dimers in crystal with carboxyl groups from each molecule of acid was shown that it leads to create Hydrogen bounds for adjacent molecules. The current study aimed to investigate the possibility of simulating the empirical values. Analysis of vibrational spectrum of Alpha–Conotoxin, Omega–Conotoxin and Mu–Conotoxin is performed based on theoretical simulation and FT–IR empirical spectrum and Raman empirical spectrum using density functional theory in levels of F/6–31G*, HF/6–31++G**, MP2/6–31G, MP2/6–31++G**, BLYP/6–31G, BLYP/6–31++G**, B3LYP/6–31G and B3LYP6–31–HEG**. Vibration modes of methylene, carboxyl acid and phenyl cycle are separately investigated. The obtained values confirm high accuracy and validity of results obtained from calculations.



[1] Yu, P.; Wu, J.; Liu, S.; Xiong, J.; Jagadish, C.; Wang, Z. M.Design and Fabrication of Silicon Nanowires towards Efficient Solar Cells. Nano Today2016, 11, 704–737, 10.1016/j.nantod.2016.10.001.

[2] Sandhu, S.; Fan, S.Current-Voltage Enhancement of a Single Coaxial Nanowire Solar Cell. ACS Photonics2015, 2, 1698–1704, 10.1021/acsphotonics.5b00236.

[3] Van Dam, D.; Van Hoof, N. J. J.; Cui, Y.; van Veldhoven, P. J.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Gómez Rivas, J.; Haverkort, J. E. M.High-Efficiency Nanowire Solar Cells with Omnidirectionally Enhanced Absorption Due to Self-Aligned Indium-Tin-Oxide Mie Scatterers. ACS Nano2016, 10, 11414–11419, 10.1021/acsnano.6b06874.

[4] Luo, S.; Yu, W. B.; He, Y.; Ouyang, G.Size-Dependent Optical Absorption Modulation of Si/Ge and Ge/Si Core/shell Nanowires with Different Cross-Sectional Geometries. Nanotechnology2015, 26, 085702, 10.1088/0957-4484/26/8/085702.

[5] Yu, P.; Yao, Y.; Wu, J.; Niu, X.; Rogach, A. L.; Wang, Z.Effects of Plasmonic Metal Core-Dielectric Shell Nanoparticles on the Broadband Light Absorption Enhancement in Thin Film Solar Cells. Sci. Rep.2017, 7, 7696, 10.1038/s41598-017-08077-9.

[6] Gouda, A. M.; Allam, N. K.; Swillam, M. A.Efficient Fabrication Methodology of Wide Angle Black Silicon for Energy Harvesting Applications. RSC Adv.2017, 7, 26974–26982, 10.1039/C7RA03568C.

[7] Branz, H. M.; Yost, V. E.; Ward, S.; Jones, K. M.; To, B.; Stradins, P.Nanostructured Black Silicon and the Optical Reflectance of Graded-Density Surfaces. Appl. Phys. Lett.2009, 94, 231121, 10.1063/1.3152244.

[8] Fazio, B.; Artoni, P.; Antonía Iatí, M.; D’Andrea, C.; Lo Faro, M. J.; Del Sorbo, S.; Pirotta, S.; Giuseppe Gucciardi, P.; Musumeci, P.; Salvatore Vasi, C.; Saija, R.; Galli, M.; Priolo, F.; Irrera, A.Strongly Enhanced Light Trapping in a Two-Dimensional Silicon Nanowire Random Fractal Array. Light: Sci. Appl.2016, 5, e16062, 10.1038/lsa.2016.62.

[9] Ko, M.-D.; Rim, T.; Kim, K.; Meyyappan, M.; Baek, C.-K.High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cell Based on Asymmetric Nanowire. Sci. Rep.2015, 5, 11646, 10.1038/srep11646.

[10] Oh, J.; Yuan, H. C.; Branz, H. M.An 18.2%-Efficient Black-Silicon Solar Cell Achieved through Control of Carrier Recombination in Nanostructures. Nat. Nanotechnol.2012, 7, 743–748, 10.1038/nnano.2012.166.

[11] Lin, H.; Xiu, F.; Fang, M.; Yip, S.; Cheung, H. Y.; Wang, F.; Han, N.; Chan, K. S.; Wong, C. Y.; Ho, J. C.Rational Design of Inverted Nanopencil Arrays for Cost-Effective, Broadband, and Omnidirectional Light Harvesting. ACS Nano2014, 8, 3752–3760, 10.1021/nn500418x.

[12] Garnett, E.; Yang, P.Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells. Nano Lett.2010, 10, 1082–1087, 10.1021/nl100161z.

[13] Misra, S.; Yu, L.; Foldyna, M.; Roca I Cabarrocas, P.High Efficiency and Stable Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Radial Junction Solar Cells Built on VLS-Grown Silicon Nanowires. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells2013, 118, 90–95, 10.1016/j.solmat.2013.07.036.

[14] Kelzenberg, M. D.; Boettcher, S. W.; Petykiewicz, J. A.; Turner-Evans, D. B.; Putnam, M. C.; Warren, E. L.; Spurgeon, J. M.; Briggs, R. M.; Lewis, N. S.; Atwater, H. A.Enhanced Absorption and Carrier Collection in Si Wire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications. Nat. Mater.2010, 9, 239–244, 10.1038/nmat2635.

[15] Tian, B.; Zheng, X.; Kempa, T. J.; Fang, Y.; Yu, N.; Yu, G.; Huang, J.; Lieber, C. M.Coaxial Silicon Nanowires as Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Power Sources. Nature2007, 449, 885–889, 10.1038/nature06181.

[16] Razek, S. A.; Swillam, M. A.; Allam, N. K.Vertically Aligned Crystalline Silicon Nanowires with Controlled Diameters for Energy Conversion Applications: Experimental and Theoretical Insights. J. Appl. Phys.2014, 115, 194305, 10.1063/1.4876477.

[17] Dhindsa, N.; Walia, J.; Saini, S. S.A Platform for Colorful Solar Cells with Enhanced Absorption. Nanotechnology2016, 27, 495203, 10.1088/0957-4484/27/49/495203.

[18] Dhindsa, N.; Walia, J.; Pathirane, M.; Khodadad, I.; Wong, W. S.; Saini, S. S.Adjustable Optical Response of Amorphous Silicon Nanowires Integrated with Thin Films. Nanotechnology2016, 27, 145703, 10.1088/0957-4484/27/14/145703.

[19] Zhu, J.; Yu, Z.; Burkhard, G. F.; Hsu, C.-M.; Connor, S. T.; Xu, Y.; Wang, Q.; McGehee, M.; Fan, S.; Cui, Y.Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays. Nano Lett.2009, 9, 279–282, 10.1021/nl802886y.

[20] Klinger, D.; Åusakowska, E.; Zymierska, D.Nano-Structure Formed by Nanosecond Laser Annealing on Amorphous Si Surface. Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.2006, 9, 323–326, 10.1016/j.mssp.2006.01.027.

[21] Kumar, P.; Krishna, M. G.; Bhattacharya, A.Excimer Laser Induced Nanostructuring of Silicon Surfaces. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.2009, 9, 3224–3232, 10.1166/jnn.2009.207.

[22] Kumar, P.Surface Modulation of Silicon Surface by Excimer Laser at Laser Fluence below Ablation Threshold. Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.2010, 99, 245–250, 10.1007/s00339-009-5510-x.

[23] Adikaari, A. A. D. T.; Silva, S. R. P.Thickness Dependence of Properties of Excimer Laser Crystallized Nano-Polycrystalline Silicon. J. Appl. Phys.2005, 97, 114305, 10.1063/1.1898444.

[24] Adikaari, A. A. D. T.; Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Hatton, R. A.; Silva, S. R. P.Efficient Laser Textured Nanocrystalline Silicon-Polymer Bilayer Solar Cells. Appl. Phys. Lett.2007, 90, 203514, 10.1063/1.2739365.

[25] Adikaari, A. A. D. T.; Silva, S. R. P.Excimer Laser Crystallization and Nanostructuring of Amorphous Silicon for Photovoltaic Applications. Nano2008, 3, 117–126, 10.1142/S1793292008000915.

[26] Tang, Y. F.; Silva, S. R. P.; Boskovic, B. O.; Shannon, J. M.; Rose, M. J.Electron Field Emission from Excimer Laser Crystallized Amorphous Silicon. Appl. Phys. Lett.2002, 80, 4154–4156, 10.1063/1.1482141.

[27] Jin, S.; Hong, S.; Mativenga, M.; Kim, B.; Shin, H. H.; Park, J. K.; Kim, T. W.; Jang, J.Low Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon with Single Orientation on Glass by Blue Laser Annealing. Thin Solid Films2016, 616, 838–841, 10.1016/j.tsf.2016.10.026.

[28] Crouch, C. H.; Carey, J. E.; Warrender, J. M.; Aziz, M. J.; Mazur, E.; Génin, F. Y.Comparison of Structure and Properties of Femtosecond and Nanosecond Laser-Structured Silicon. Appl. Phys. Lett.2004, 84, 1850–1852, 10.1063/1.1667004.

[29] Wu, C.; Crouch, C. H.; Zhao, L.; Carey, J. E.; Younkin, R.; Levinson, J. A.; Mazur, E.; Farrell, R. M.; Gothoskar, P.; Karger, A.Near-Unity below-Band-Gap Absorption by Microstructured Silicon. Appl. Phys. Lett.2001, 78, 1850–1852, 10.1063/1.1358846.

[30] Pedraza, A. J.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Lowndes, D. H.Silicon Microcolumn Arrays Grown by Nanosecond Pulsed-Excimer Laser Irradiation. Appl. Phys. Lett.1999, 74, 2322, 10.1063/1.123838.

[31] Pedraza, A. J.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Jesse, S.; Mao, C.; Lowndes, D. H.Surface Micro-Structuring of Silicon by Excimer-Laser Irradiation in Reactive Atmospheres. Appl. Surf. Sci.2000, 168, 251–257, 10.1016/S0169-4332(00)00611-5.

[32] Porte, H. P.; Turchinovich, D.; Persheyev, S.; Fan, Y.; Rose, M. J.; Jepsen, P. U.On Ultrafast Photoconductivity Dynamics and Crystallinity of Black Silicon. IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol.2013, 3, 331–341, 10.1109/TTHZ.2013.2255917.

[33] Georgiev, D. G.; Baird, R. J.; Avrutsky, I.; Auner, G.; Newaz, G.Controllable Excimer-Laser Fabrication of Conical Nano-Tips on Silicon Thin Films. Appl. Phys. Lett.2004, 84, 4881–4883, 10.1063/1.1762978.

[34] Eizenkop, J.; Avrutsky, I.; Georgiev, D. G.; Chaudchary, V.Single-Pulse Excimer Laser Nanostructuring of Silicon: A Heat Transfer Problem and Surface Morphology. J. Appl. Phys.2008, 103, 094311, 10.1063/1.2910196.

[35] Eizenkop, J.; Avrutsky, I.; Auner, G.; Georgiev, D. G.; Chaudhary, V.Single Pulse Excimer Laser Nanostructuring of Thin Silicon Films: Nanosharp Cones Formation and a Heat Transfer Problem. J. Appl. Phys.2007, 101, 094301, 10.1063/1.2720185.

[36] Hong, L.; Wang, X. C.; Zheng, H. Y.; He, L.; Wang, H.; Yu, H. Y.; RusliFemtosecond Laser Induced Nanocone Structure and Simultaneous Crystallization of 1.6 μM Amorphous Silicon Thin Film for Photovoltaic Application. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.2013, 46, 195109, 10.1088/0022-3727/46/19/195109.

[37] Hong, L.; Wang, X.; Rusli; Wang, H.; Zheng, H.; Yu, H.Crystallization and Surface Texturing of Amorphous-Si Induced by UV Laser for Photovoltaic Application. J. Appl. Phys.2012, 111, 043106, 10.1063/1.3686612.

[38] Magdi, S.; Swillam, M. A.Broadband Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Si Solar Cells Using Metal Gratings and Surface Texturing. Proc. SPIE2017, 10099, 1009912, 10.1117/12.2253326.

[39] Diedenhofen, S. L.; Janssen, O. T. A.; Grzela, G.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Gómez Rivas, J.Strong Geometrical Dependence of the Absorption of Light in Arrays of Semiconductor Nanowires. ACS Nano2011, 5, 2316–2323, 10.1021/nn103596n.

[40] Jäger, S. T.; Strehle, S.Design Parameters for Enhanced Photon Absorption in Vertically Aligned Silicon Nanowire Arrays. Nanoscale Res. Lett.2014, 9, 511, 10.1186/1556-276X-9-511.

[41] Gouda, A. M.; Elsayed, M. Y.; Khalifa, A. E.; Ismail, Y.; Swillam, M. A.Lithography-Free Wide-Angle Antireflective Self-Cleaning Silicon Nanocones. Opt. Lett.2016, 41, 3575, 10.1364/OL.41.003575.

[42] Magdi, S.; Swillam, M. A.Optical Analysis of Si-Tapered Nanowires/low Band Gap Polymer Hybrid Solar Cells. Proc. SPIE2017, 10099, 100991D, 10.1117/12.2253299.

[43] Jiang, Y.; Gong, X.; Qin, R.; Liu, H.; Xia, C.; Ma, H.Efficiency Enhancement Mechanism for Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate)/Silicon Nanowires Hybrid Solar Cells Using Alkali Treatment. Nanoscale Res. Lett.2016, 11, 267, 10.1186/s11671-016-1450-5.

[44] Gong, X.; Jiang, Y.; Li, M.; Liu, H.; Ma, H.Hybrid Tapered Silicon nanowire/PEDOT:PSS Solar Cells. RSC Adv.2015, 5 (14), 10310–10317, 10.1039/C4RA16603E.

[45] Mohammad, N. S.Understanding Quantum Confinement in Nanowires: Basics, Applications and Possible Laws. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter2014, 26, 423202, 10.1088/0953-8984/26/42/423202.

[46] Zhang, A.; Luo, S.; Ouyang, G.; Yang, G. W.Strain-Induced Optical Absorption Properties of Semiconductor Nanocrystals. J. Chem. Phys.2013, 138, 244702, 10.1063/1.4811222.

[47] He, Y.; Yu, W.; Ouyang, G.Shape-Dependent Conversion Efficiency of Si Nanowire Solar Cells with Polygonal Cross-Sections. J. Appl. Phys.2016, 119, 225101, 10.1063/1.4953377.

[48] Tchakarov, S.; Das, D.; Saadane, O.; Kharchenko, A. V.; Suendo, V.; Kail, F.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.Helium versus Hydrogen Dilution in the Optimization of Polymorphous Silicon Solar Cells. J. Non-Cryst. Solids2004, 338–340, 668–672, 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2004.03.068.

[49] Roszairi, H.; Rahman, S. a.High Deposition Rate Thin Film Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Prepared by D.c. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition of Helium Diluted Silane. IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics, 2002. Proceedings. ICSE 2002, Panang, Malaysia, Dec. 19–21, 2002; IEEE: New York, NY, USA, 2002; pp 300–303, DOI: 10.1109/SMELEC.2002.1217830.

[50] N’Guyen, T. T. T.; Duong, H. T. T.; Basuki, J.; Montembault, V.; Pascual, S.; Guibert, C.; Fresnais, J.; Boyer, C.; Whittaker, M. R.; Davis, T. P.; Fontaine, L.Functional Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles with Hyperthermia-Induced Drug Release Ability by Using a Combination of Orthogonal Click Reactions. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.2013, 52, 14152–14156, 10.1002/anie.201306724.

[51] Xu, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, X.; Lin, T.A Thermally Healable Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) Nanocomposite based on Diels-Alder chemistry. Chem. Commun.2013, 49, 6755–6757, 10.1039/c3cc43432j.

[52] Engel, T.; Kickelbick, G.Self-Healing Nanocomposites from Silica – Polymer Core – Shell Nanoparticles. Polym. Int.2014, 63, 915–923, 10.1002/pi.4642.

[53] Engel, T.; Kickelbick, G.Furan-Modified Spherosilicates as Building Blocks for Self-Healing Materials. Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.2015, 2015, 1226–1232, 10.1002/ejic.201402551.

[54] Torres-Lugo, M.; Rinaldi, C.Thermal Potentiation of Chemotherapy by Magnetic Nanoparticles. Nanomedicine2013, 8, 1689–1707, 10.2217/nnm.13.146.

[55] Hohlbein, N.; Shaaban, A.; Bras, A. R.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Schmidt, A. M.Self-healing Dynamic Bond-based Rubbers: Understanding the Mechanisms in Ionomeric Elastomer Model Systems. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.2015, 17, 21005–21017, 10.1039/C5CP00620A.

[56] Wu, C.-S.; Kao, T.-H.; Li, H.-Y.; Liu, Y.-L.Preparation of Polybenzoxazine-functionalized Fe3O4 Nanoparticles through in situ Diels–Alder Polymerization for High Performance Magnetic Polybenzoxazine/Fe3O4 Nanocomposites. Compos. Sci. Technol.2012, 72, 1562–1567, 10.1016/j.compscitech.2012.06.018.

[57] Menon, A. V.; Madras, G.; Bose, S.Ultrafast Self-Healable Interfaces in Polyurethane Nanocomposites Designed Using Diels–Alder “Click†as an Efficient Microwave Absorber. ACS Omega2018, 3, 1137–1146, 10.1021/acsomega.7b01845.

[58] Engel, T.; Kickelbick, G.Thermoreversible Reactions on Inorganic Nanoparticle Surfaces: Diels–Alder Reactions on Sterically Crowded Surfaces. Chem. Mater.2013, 25, 149–157, 10.1021/cm303049k.

[59] Schäfer, S.; Kickelbick, G.Self-Healing Polymer Nanocomposites based on Diels-Alder-reactions with Silica Nanoparticles: The Role of the Polymer Matrix. Polymer2015, 69, 357–368, 10.1016/j.polymer.2015.03.017.

[60] Park, J. S.; Darlington, T.; Starr, A. F.; Takahashi, K.; Riendeau, J.; Thomas Hahn, H.Multiple Healing Effect of Thermally Activated Self-Healing Composites based on Diels–Alder reaction. Compos. Sci. Technol.2010, 70, 2154–2159, 10.1016/j.compscitech.2010.08.017.

[61] Li, J.; Liang, J.; Li, L.; Ren, F.; Hu, W.; Li, J.; Qi, S.; Pei, Q.Healable Capacitive Touch Screen Sensors Based on Transparent Composite ElectrodesComprising Silver Nanowires and a Furan/Maleimide Diels-Alder Cycloaddition Polymer. ACS Nano2014, 8, 12874–12882, 10.1021/nn506610p.

[62] Sun, S.; Zeng, H.; Robinson, D. B.; Raoux, S.; Rice, P. M.; Wang, S. X.; Li, G.Monodisperse MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co, Mn) Nanoparticles. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2004, 126, 273–279, 10.1021/ja0380852.

[63] Frison, R.; Cernuto, G.; Cervellino, A.; Zaharko, O.; Colonna, G. M.; Guagliardi, A.; Masciocchi, N.Magnetite–Maghemite Nanoparticles in the 5–15 nm Range: Correlating the Core–Shell Composition and the Surface Structure to the Magnetic Properties. A Total Scattering Study. Chem. Mater.2013, 25, 4820–4827, 10.1021/cm403360f.

[64] Santoyo Salazar, J.; Perez, L.; de Abril, O.; Truong Phuoc, L.; Ihiawakrim, D.; Vazquez, M.; Greneche, J.-M.; Begin-Colin, S.; Pourroy, G.Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in 10–40 nm Range: Composition in Terms of Magnetite/Maghemite Ratio and Effect on the Magnetic Properties. Chem. Mater.2011, 23, 1379–1386, 10.1021/cm103188a.

[65] Guerrero, G.; Mutin, P. H.; Vioux, A.Anchoring of Phosphonate and Phosphinate Coupling Molecules on Titania Particles. Chem. Mater.2001, 13, 4367–4373, 10.1021/cm001253u.

[66] Babu, K.; Dhamodharan, R.Grafting of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Brushes from Magnetite Nanoparticles Using a Phosphonic Acid Based Initiator by Ambient Temperature Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATATRP). Nanoscale Res. Lett.2008, 3, 109–117, 10.1007/s11671-008-9121-9.

[67] Mohapatra, S.; Pramanik, P.Synthesis and Stability of Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles using Organophosphorus Coupling Agents. Colloids Surf., A2009, 339, 35–42, 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2009.01.009.

[68] Larsen, B. A.; Hurst, K. M.; Ashurst, W. R.; Serkova, N. J.; Stoldt, C. R.Mono- and Dialkoxysilane Surface Modification of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Application as Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents. J. Mater. Res.2012, 27, 1846–1852, 10.1557/jmr.2012.160.

[69] Davis, K.; Qi, B.; Witmer, M.; Kitchens, C. L.; Powell, B. A.; Mefford, O. T.Quantitative Measurement of Ligand Exchange on Iron Oxides via Radiolabeled Oleic Acid. Langmuir2014, 30, 10918–10925, 10.1021/la502204g.

[70] Feichtenschlager, B.; Pabisch, S.; Peterlik, H.; Kickelbick, G.Nanoparticle Assemblies as Probes for Self-Assembled Monolayer Characterization: Correlation between Surface Functionalization and Agglomeration Behavior. Langmuir2012, 28, 741–750, 10.1021/la2023067.

[71] Musa, O. M.Handbook of Maleic Anhydride Based Materials: Syntheses, Properties and Applications;Springer International Publishing: Switzerland, 2016; p 175ff.

[72] Sauer, R.; Froimowicz, P.; Scholler, K.; Cramer, J. M.; Ritz, S.; Mailander, V.; Landfester, K.Design, Synthesis, and Miniemulsion Polymerization of New Phosphonate Surfmers and Application Studies of the Resulting Nanoparticles as Model Systems for Biomimetic Mineralization and Cellular Uptake. Chem. - Eur. J.2012, 18, 5201–5212, 10.1002/chem.201103256.

[73] Lu, C.; Bhatt, L. R.; Jun, H. Y.; Park, S. H.; Chai, K. Y.Carboxyl–Polyethylene Glycol–Phosphoric Acid: A Ligand for highly stabilized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. J. Mater. Chem.2012, 22, 19806–19811, 10.1039/c2jm34327d.

[74] Patsula, V.; Kosinova, L.; Lovric, M.; Ferhatovic Hamzic, L.; Rabyk, M.; Konefal, R.; Paruzel, A.; Slouf, M.; Herynek, V.; Gajovic, S.; Horak, D.Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles: Synthesis by Thermal Decomposition of Iron(III) Glucuronate and Application in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2016, 8, 7238–7247, 10.1021/acsami.5b12720.

[75] Pothayee, N.; Balasubramaniam, S.; Davis, R. M.; Riffle, J. S.; Carroll, M. R. J.; Woodward, R. C.; St Pierre, T. G.Synthesis of ‘ready-to-adsorb’ Polymeric Nanoshells for Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Polymer2011, 52, 1356–1366, 10.1016/j.polymer.2011.01.047.

[76] Daou, J.; Begin-Colin, S.; Grenèche, J. M.; Thomas, F.; Derory, A.; Bernhardt, P.; Legaré, P.; Pourroy, G.Phosphate Adsorption Properties of Magnetite-Based Nanoparticles. Chem. Mater.2007, 19, 4494–4505, 10.1021/cm071046v.

[77] Breucker, L.; Landfester, K.; Taden, A.Phosphonic Acid-Functionalized Polyurethane Dispersions with Improved Adhesion Properties. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2015, 7, 24641–24648, 10.1021/acsami.5b06903.

[78] Sahoo, Y.; Pizem, H.; Fried, T.; Golodnitsky, D.; Burstein, L.; Sukenik, C. N.; Markovich, G.Alkyl Phosphonate/Phosphate Coating on Magnetite Nanoparticles: A Comparison with Fatty Acids. Langmuir2001, 17, 7907–7911, 10.1021/la010703+.

[79] Longo, R. C.; Cho, K.; Schmidt, W. G.; Chabal, Y. J.; Thissen, P.Monolayer Doping via Phosphonic Acid Grafting on Silicon: Microscopic Insight from Infrared Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations. Adv. Funct. Mater.2013, 23, 3471–3477, 10.1002/adfm.201202808.

[80] Luschtinetz, R.; Seifert, G.; Jaehne, E.; Adler, H.-J. P.Infrared Spectra of Alkylphosphonic Acid Bound to Aluminium Surfaces. Macromol. Symp.2007, 254, 248–253, 10.1002/masy.200750837.

[81] Thomas, L. C.; Chittenden, R. A.Characteristic Infrared Absorption Frequencies of Organophosphorus Compounds-II. P-O-(X) Bonds. Spectrochim. Acta1964, 20, 489–502, 10.1016/0371-1951(64)80044-8.

[82] Quinones, R.; Shoup, D.; Behnke, G.; Peck, C.; Agarwal, S.; Gupta, R. K.; Fagan, J. W.; Mueller, K. T.; Iuliucci, R. J.; Wang, Q.Study of Perfluorophosphonic Acid Surface Modifications on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles. Materials2017, 10, 1–16, 10.3390/ma10121363.

[83] Lalatonne, Y.; Paris, C.; Serfaty, J. M.; Weinmann, P.; Lecouvey, M.; Motte, L.Bis-Phosphonates-Ultra Small Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Platform towards Diagnosis and Therapy. Chem. Commun.2008, 2553–2555, 10.1039/b801911h.

[84] Jastrzebski, W.; Sitarz, M.; Rokita, M.; Bulat, K.Infrared Spectroscopy of different Phosphates Structures. Spectrochim. Acta, Part A2011, 79, 722–727, 10.1016/j.saa.2010.08.044.

[85] Brodard-Severac, F.; Guerrero, G.; Maquet, J.; Florian, P.; Gervais, C.; Mutin, P. H.High-Field 17O MAS NMR Investigation of Phosphonic Acid Monolayers on Titania. Chem. Mater.2008, 20, 5191–5196, 10.1021/cm8012683.

[86] Brice-Profeta, S.; Arrio, M. A.; Tronc, E.; Menguy, N.; Letard, I.; CartierditMoulin, C.; Noguès, M.; Chanéac, C.; Jolivet, J. P.; Sainctavit, P.Magnetic Order in g-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles: A XMCD Study. J. Magn. Magn. Mater.2005, 288, 354–365, 10.1016/j.jmmm.2004.09.120.

[87] Tronc, E.; Ezzir, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chanéac, C.; Noguès, M.; Kachkachi, H.; Fiorani, D.; Testa, A. M.; Grenèche, J. M.; Jolivet, J. P.Surface-Related Properties of g-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles. J. Magn. Magn. Mater.2000, 221, 63–79, 10.1016/S0304-8853(00)00369-3.

[88] Yee, C.; Kataby, G.; Ulman, A.; Prozorov, T.; White, H.; King, A.; Rafailovich, M.; Sokolov, J.; Gedanken, A.Self-Assembled Monolayers of Alkanesulfonic and -phosphonic Acids on Amorphous Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Langmuir1999, 15, 7111–7115, 10.1021/la990663y.

[89] Jolivet, J. P.; Chaneac, C.; Tronc, E.Iron Oxide Chemistry. From Molecular Clusters to Extended Solid Networks. Chem. Commun.2004, 481–487, 10.1039/B304532N.

[90] Campbell, V. E.; Tonelli, M.; Cimatti, I.; Moussy, J. B.; Tortech, L.; Dappe, Y. J.; Riviere, E.; Guillot, R.; Delprat, S.; Mattana, R.; Seneor, P.; Ohresser, P.; Choueikani, F.; Otero, E.; Koprowiak, F.; Chilkuri, V. G.; Suaud, N.; Guihery, N.; Galtayries, A.; Miserque, F.; Arrio, M. A.; Sainctavit, P.; Mallah, T.Engineering the Magnetic Coupling and Anisotropy at the Molecule-Magnetic Surface Interface in Molecular Spintronic Devices. Nat. Commun.2016, 7, 13646–10, 10.1038/ncomms13646.

[91] Pabisiak, T.; Winiarski, M. J.; Ossowski, T.; Kiejna, A.Adsorption of Gold Subnano-Structures on a Magnetite (111) Surface and their Interaction with CO. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.2016, 18, 18169–18179, 10.1039/C6CP03222B.

[92] Gomes, R.; Hassinen, A.; Szczygiel, A.; Zhao, Q.; Vantomme, A.; Martins, J. C.; Hens, Z.Binding of Phosphonic Acids to CdSe Quantum Dots: A Solution NMR Study. J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2011, 2, 145–152, 10.1021/jz1016729.

[93] Chun, Y.-J.; Park, J.-N.; Oh, G.-M.; Hong, S.-I.; Kim, Y.-J.Synthesis of ω-Phthalimidoalkylphosphonates. Synthesis1994, 1994, 909–910, 10.1055/s-1994-25599.

[94] A. Heidari, C. Brown, “Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cellsâ€, J Nanomed Res., Volume 2, Issue 5, 20 Pages, 2015.

[95] A. Heidari, C. Brown, “Study of Surface Morphological, Phytochemical and Structural Characteristics of Rhodium (III) Oxide (Rh2O3) Nanoparticlesâ€, International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 15–19, 2015.

[96] A. Heidari, “An Experimental Biospectroscopic Study on Seminal Plasma in Determination of Semen Quality for Evaluation of Male Infertilityâ€, Int J Adv Technol 7: e007, 2016.

[97] A. Heidari, “Extraction and Preconcentration of N–Tolyl–Sulfonyl–Phosphoramid–Saeure–Dichlorid as an Anti–Cancer Drug from Plants: A Pharmacognosy Studyâ€, J Pharmacogn Nat Prod 2: e103, 2016.

[98] A. Heidari, “A Thermodynamic Study on Hydration and Dehydration of DNA and RNA−Amphiphile Complexesâ€, J Bioeng Biomed Sci S: 006, 2016.

[99] A. Heidari, “Computational Studies on Molecular Structures and Carbonyl and Ketene Groups’ Effects of Singlet and Triplet Energies of Azidoketene O=C=CH–NNN and Isocyanatoketene O=C=CH–N=C=Oâ€, J Appl Computat Math 5: e142, 2016.

[100] A. Heidari, “Study of Irradiations to Enhance the Induces the Dissociation of Hydrogen Bonds between Peptide Chains and Transition from Helix Structure to Random Coil Structure Using ATR–FTIR, Raman and 1HNMR Spectroscopiesâ€, J Biomol Res Ther 5: e146, 2016.

[101] A. Heidari, “Future Prospects of Point Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Fluorescence Imaging and Fluorescence Endoscopy in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for Cancer Cellsâ€, J Bioanal Biomed 8: e135, 2016.

[102] A. Heidari, “A Bio–Spectroscopic Study of DNA Density and Color Role as Determining Factor for Absorbed Irradiation in Cancer Cellsâ€, Adv Cancer Prev 1: e102, 2016.

[103] A. Heidari, “Manufacturing Process of Solar Cells Using Cadmium Oxide (CdO) and Rhodium (III) Oxide (Rh2O3) Nanoparticlesâ€, J Biotechnol Biomater 6: e125, 2016.

[104] A. Heidari, “A Novel Experimental and Computational Approach to Photobiosimulation of Telomeric DNA/RNA: A Biospectroscopic and Photobiological Studyâ€, J Res Development 4: 144, 2016.

[105] A. Heidari, “Biochemical and Pharmacodynamical Study of Microporous Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Selective for Vancomycin, Teicoplanin, Oritavancin, Telavancin and Dalbavancin Bindingâ€, Biochem Physiol 5: e146, 2016.

[106] A. Heidari, “Anti–Cancer Effect of UV Irradiation at Presence of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles on DNA of Cancer Cells: A Photodynamic Therapy Studyâ€, Arch Cancer Res. 4: 1, 2016.

[107] A. Heidari, “Biospectroscopic Study on Multi–Component Reactions (MCRs) in Two A–Type and B–Type Conformations of Nucleic Acids to Determine Ligand Binding Modes, Binding Constant and Stability of Nucleic Acids in Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles–Nucleic Acids Complexes as Anti–Cancer Drugsâ€, Arch Cancer Res. 4: 2, 2016.

[108] A. Heidari, “Simulation of Temperature Distribution of DNA/RNA of Human Cancer Cells Using Time–Dependent Bio–Heat Equation and Nd: YAG Lasersâ€, Arch Cancer Res. 4: 2, 2016.

[109] A. Heidari, “Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship (QSAR) Approximation for Cadmium Oxide (CdO) and Rhodium (III) Oxide (Rh2O3) Nanoparticles as Anti–Cancer Drugs for the Catalytic Formation of Proviral DNA from Viral RNA Using Multiple Linear and Non–Linear Correlation Approachâ€, Ann Clin Lab Res. 4: 1, 2016.

[110] A. Heidari, “Biomedical Study of Cancer Cells DNA Therapy Using Laser Irradiations at Presence of Intelligent Nanoparticlesâ€, J Biomedical Sci. 5: 2, 2016.

[111] A. Heidari, “Measurement the Amount of Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol), Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) and Absorbable Calcium (Ca2+), Iron (II) (Fe2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Phosphate (PO4–) and Zinc (Zn2+) in Apricot Using High–Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Spectroscopic Techniquesâ€, J Biom Biostat 7: 292, 2016.

[112] A. Heidari, “Spectroscopy and Quantum Mechanics of the Helium Dimer (He2+), Neon Dimer (Ne2+), Argon Dimer (Ar2+), Krypton Dimer (Kr2+), Xenon Dimer (Xe2+), Radon Dimer(Rn2+) and Ununoctium Dimer (Uuo2+) Molecular Cationsâ€, Chem Sci J 7: e112, 2016.

[113] A. Heidari, “Human Toxicity Photodynamic Therapy Studies on DNA/RNA Complexes as a Promising New Sensitizer for the Treatment of Malignant Tumors Using Bio–Spectroscopic Techniquesâ€, J Drug Metab Toxicol 7: e129, 2016.

[114] A. Heidari, “Novel and Stable Modifications of Intelligent Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles as Anti–Cancer Drug in Formation of Nucleic Acids Complexes for Human Cancer Cells’ Treatmentâ€, Biochem Pharmacol (Los Angel) 5: 207, 2016.

[115] A. Heidari, “A Combined Computational and QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Study on Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs), Amorphous Boron Nitride Nanotubes (a–BNNTs) and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanotubes (h–BNNTs) as Hydrogen Storageâ€, Struct Chem Crystallogr Commun 2: 1, 2016.

[116] A. Heidari, “Pharmaceutical and Analytical Chemistry Study of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles Synthesis Methods and Properties as Anti–Cancer Drug and its Effect on Human Cancer Cellsâ€, Pharm Anal Chem Open Access 2: 113, 2016.

[117] A. Heidari, “A Chemotherapeutic and Biospectroscopic Investigation of the Interaction of Double–Standard DNA/RNA–Binding Molecules with Cadmium Oxide (CdO) and Rhodium (III) Oxide (Rh2O3) Nanoparticles as Anti–Cancer Drugs for Cancer Cells’ Treatmentâ€, Chemo Open Access 5: e129, 2016.

[118] A. Heidari, “Pharmacokinetics and Experimental Therapeutic Study of DNA and Other Biomolecules Using Lasers: Advantages and Applicationsâ€, J Pharmacokinet Exp Ther 1: e005, 2016.

[119] A. Heidari, “Determination of Ratio and Stability Constant of DNA/RNA in Human Cancer Cells and Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles Complexes Using Analytical Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Techniquesâ€, Insights Anal Electrochem 2: 1, 2016.

[120] A. Heidari, “Discriminate between Antibacterial and Non–Antibacterial Drugs Artificial Neutral Networks of a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Type Using a Set of Topological Descriptorsâ€, J Heavy Met Toxicity Dis. 1: 2, 2016.

[121] A. Heidari, “Combined Theoretical and Computational Study of the Belousov–Zhabotinsky Chaotic Reaction and Curtius Rearrangement for Synthesis of Mechlorethamine, Cisplatin, Streptozotocin, Cyclophosphamide, Melphalan, Busulphan and BCNU as Anti–Cancer Drugsâ€, Insights Med Phys. 1: 2, 2016.

[122] A. Heidari, “A Translational Biomedical Approach to Structural Arrangement of Amino Acids’ Complexes: A Combined Theoretical and Computational Studyâ€, Transl Biomed. 7: 2, 2016.

[123] A. Heidari, “Ab Initio and Density Functional Theory (DFT) Studies of Dynamic NMR Shielding Tensors and Vibrational Frequencies of DNA/RNA and Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles Complexes in Human Cancer Cellsâ€, J Nanomedine Biotherapeutic Discov 6: e144, 2016.

[124] A. Heidari, “Molecular Dynamics and Monte–Carlo Simulations for Replacement Sugars in Insulin Resistance, Obesity, LDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: A Glycobiological Studyâ€, J Glycobiol 5: e111, 2016.

[125] A. Heidari, “Synthesis and Study of 5–[(Phenylsulfonyl)Amino]–1,3,4–Thiadiazole–2–Sulfonamide as Potential Anti–Pertussis Drug Using Chromatography and Spectroscopy Techniquesâ€, Transl Med (Sunnyvale) 6: e138, 2016.

[126] A. Heidari, “Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus and Sulphur Heterocyclic Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs Separation in the Supercritical Fluid of Ozone (O3) Using Soave–Redlich–Kwong (SRK) and Pang–Robinson (PR) Equationsâ€, Electronic J Biol 12: 4, 2016.

[127] A. Heidari, “An Analytical and Computational Infrared Spectroscopic Review of Vibrational Modes in Nucleic Acidsâ€, Austin J Anal Pharm Chem. 3 (1): 1058, 2016.

[128] A. Heidari, C. Brown, “Phase, Composition and Morphology Study and Analysis of Os–Pd/HfC Nanocompositesâ€, Nano Res Appl. 2: 1, 2016.

[129] A. Heidari, C. Brown, “Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Intensities and Shifts of Symmetric Vibration Modes of Ozone Diluted by Cumeneâ€, International Journal of Advanced Chemistry, 4 (1) 5–9, 2016.

[130] A. Heidari, “Study of the Role of Anti–Cancer Molecules with Different Sizes for Decreasing Corresponding Bulk Tumor Multiple Organs or Tissuesâ€, Arch Can Res. 4: 2, 2016.

[131] A. Heidari, “Genomics and Proteomics Studies of Zolpidem, Necopidem, Alpidem, Saripidem, Miroprofen, Zolimidine, Olprinone and Abafungin as Anti–Tumor, Peptide Antibiotics, Antiviral and Central Nervous System (CNS) Drugsâ€, J Data Mining Genomics & Proteomics 7: e125, 2016.

[132] A. Heidari, “Pharmacogenomics and Pharmacoproteomics Studies of Phosphodiesterase–5 (PDE5) Inhibitors and Paclitaxel Albumin–Stabilized Nanoparticles as Sandwiched Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs between Two DNA/RNA Molecules of Human Cancer Cellsâ€, J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics 7: e153, 2016.

[133] A. Heidari, “Biotranslational Medical and Biospectroscopic Studies of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles–DNA/RNA Straight and Cycle Chain Complexes as Potent Anti–Viral, Anti–Tumor and Anti–Microbial Drugs: A Clinical Approachâ€, Transl Biomed. 7: 2, 2016.

[134] A. Heidari, “A Comparative Study on Simultaneous Determination and Separation of Adsorbed Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles on DNA/RNA of Human Cancer Cells Using Biospectroscopic Techniques and Dielectrophoresis (DEP) Methodâ€, Arch Can Res. 4: 2, 2016.

[135] A. Heidari, “Cheminformatics and System Chemistry of Cisplatin, Carboplatin, Nedaplatin, Oxaliplatin, Heptaplatin and Lobaplatin as Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs: A Combined Computational and Experimental Studyâ€, J Inform Data Min 1: 3, 2016.

[136] A. Heidari, “Linear and Non–Linear Quantitative Structure–Anti–Cancer–Activity Relationship (QSACAR) Study of Hydrous Ruthenium (IV) Oxide (RuO2) Nanoparticles as Non–Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) and Anti–Cancer Nano Drugsâ€, J Integr Oncol 5: e110, 2016.

[137] A. Heidari, “Synthesis, Characterization and Biospectroscopic Studies of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles–Nucleic Acids Complexes Absence of Soluble Polymer as a Protective Agent Using Nucleic Acids Condensation and Solution Reduction Methodâ€, J Nanosci Curr Res 1: e101, 2016.

[138] A. Heidari, “Coplanarity and Collinearity of 4’–Dinonyl–2,2’–Bithiazole in One Domain of Bleomycin and Pingyangmycin to be Responsible for Binding of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles to DNA/RNA Bidentate Ligands as Anti–Tumor Nano Drugâ€, Int J Drug Dev & Res 8: 007–008, 2016.

[139] A. Heidari, “A Pharmacovigilance Study on Linear and Non–Linear Quantitative Structure (Chromatographic) Retention Relationships (QSRR) Models for the Prediction of Retention Time of Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs under Synchrotron Radiationsâ€, J Pharmacovigil 4: e161, 2016.

[140] A. Heidari, “Nanotechnology in Preparation of Semipermeable Polymersâ€, J Adv Chem Eng 6: 157, 2016.

[141] A. Heidari, “A Gastrointestinal Study on Linear and Non–Linear Quantitative Structure (Chromatographic) Retention Relationships (QSRR) Models for Analysis 5–Aminosalicylates Nano Particles as Digestive System Nano Drugs under Synchrotron Radiationsâ€, J Gastrointest Dig Syst 6: e119, 2016.

[142] A. Heidari, “DNA/RNA Fragmentation and Cytolysis in Human Cancer Cells Treated with Diphthamide Nano Particles Derivativesâ€, Biomedical Data Mining 5: e102, 2016.

[143] A. Heidari, “A Successful Strategy for the Prediction of Solubility in the Construction of Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship (QSAR) and Quantitative Structure–Property Relationship (QSPR) under Synchrotron Radiations Using Genetic Function Approximation (GFA) Algorithmâ€, J Mol Biol Biotechnol 1: 1, 2016.

[144] A. Heidari, “Computational Study on Molecular Structures of C20, C60, C240, C540, C960, C2160 and C3840 Fullerene Nano Molecules under Synchrotron Radiations Using Fuzzy Logicâ€, J Material Sci Eng 5: 282, 2016.

[145] A. Heidari, “Graph Theoretical Analysis of Zigzag Polyhexamethylene Biguanide, Polyhexamethylene Adipamide, Polyhexamethylene Biguanide Gauze and Polyhexamethylene Biguanide Hydrochloride (PHMB) Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs), Amorphous Boron Nitride Nanotubes (a–BNNTs) and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanotubes (h–BNNTs)â€, J Appl Computat Math 5: e143, 2016.

[146] A. Heidari, “The Impact of High-Resolution Imaging on Diagnosisâ€, Int J Clin Med Imaging 3: 1000e101, 2016.

[147] A. Heidari, “A Comparative Study of Conformational Behavior of Isotretinoin (13–Cis Retinoic Acid) and Tretinoin (All–Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA)) Nano Particles as Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs under Synchrotron Radiations Using Hartree–Fock (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) Methodsâ€, Insights in Biomed 1: 2, 2016.

[148] A. Heidari, “Advances in Logic, Operations and Computational Mathematicsâ€, J Appl Computat Math 5: 5, 2016.

[149] A. Heidari, “Mathematical Equations in Predicting Physical Behaviorâ€, J Appl Computat Math 5: 5, 2016.

[150] A. Heidari, “Chemotherapy a Last Resort for Cancer Treatmentâ€, Chemo Open Access 5: 4, 2016.

[151] A. Heidari, “Separation and Pre–Concentration of Metal Cations–DNA/RNA Chelates Using Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry with Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Synchrotron Radiation and Various Analytical Methodsâ€, Mass Spectrom Purif Tech 2: e101, 2016.

[152] A. Heidari, “Yoctosecond Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship (QSAR) and Quantitative Structure–Property Relationship (QSPR) under Synchrotron Radiations Studies for Prediction of Solubility of Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs in Aqueous Solutions Using Genetic Function Approximation (GFA) Algorithmâ€, Insight Pharm Res. 1: 1, 2016.

[153] A. Heidari, “Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment in Human Cells under Synchrotron Radiations Using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) and Quantitative Structure Properties Relationship (QSPR) Studiesâ€, Int J Clin Med Imaging 3: 516, 2016.

[154] A. Heidari, “A Novel Approach to Biologyâ€, Electronic J Biol 12: 4, 2016.

[155] A. Heidari, “Innovative Biomedical Equipment’s for Diagnosis and Treatmentâ€, J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci 6: 2, 2016.

[156] A. Heidari, “Integrating Precision Cancer Medicine into Healthcare, Medicare Reimbursement Changes and the Practice of Oncology: Trends in Oncology Medicine and Practicesâ€, J Oncol Med & Pract 1: 2, 2016.

[157] A. Heidari, “Promoting Convergence in Biomedical and Biomaterials Sciences and Silk Proteins for Biomedical and Biomaterials Applications: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine and Bioengineering Perspectivesâ€, J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci 6: 3, 2016.

[158] A. Heidari, “X–Ray Fluorescence and X–Ray Diffraction Analysis on Discrete Element Modeling of Nano Powder Metallurgy Processes in Optimal Container
, J Powder Metall Min 6: 1, 2017.

[159] A. Heidari, “Biomolecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Nano–Sized Molecules and Clusters as Cross–Linking–Induced Anti–Cancer and Immune–Oncology Nano Drugs Delivery in DNA/RNA of Human Cancer Cells’ Membranes under Synchrotron Radiations: A Payload–Based Perspectiveâ€, Arch Chem Res. 1: 2, 2017.

[160] A. Heidari, “Deficiencies in Repair of Double–Standard DNA/RNA–Binding Molecules Identified in Many Types of Solid and Liquid Tumors Oncology in Human Body for Advancing Cancer Immunotherapy Using Computer Simulations and Data Analysis: Number of Mutations in a Synchronous Tumor Varies by Age and Type of Synchronous Cancerâ€, J Appl Bioinforma Comput Biol, 6: 1, 2017.

[161] A. Heidari, “Electronic Coupling among the Five Nanomolecules Shuts Down Quantum Tunneling in the Presence and Absence of an Applied Magnetic Field for Indication of the Dimer or other Provide Different Influences on the Magnetic Behavior of Single Molecular Magnets (SMMs) as Qubits for Quantum Computingâ€, Glob J Res Rev. 4: 2, 2017.

[162] A. Heidari, “Polymorphism in Nano–Sized Graphene Ligand–Induced Transformation of Au38–xAgx/xCux(SPh–tBu)24 to Au36–xAgx/xCux(SPh–tBu)24 (x = 1–12) Nanomolecules for Synthesis of Au144–xAgx/xCux[(SR)60, (SC4)60, (SC6)60, (SC12)60, (PET)60, (p–MBA)60, (F)60, (Cl)60, (Br)60, (I)60, (At)60, (Uus)60 and (SC6H13)60] Nano Clusters as Anti–Cancer Nano Drugsâ€, J Nanomater Mol Nanotechnol, 6: 3, 2017.

[163] A. Heidari, “Biomedical Resource Oncology and Data Mining to
Enable Resource Discovery in Medical, Medicinal, Clinical, Pharmaceutical,
Chemical and Translational Research and Their Applications in Cancer Researchâ€
Int J Biomed Data Min 6: e103, 2017.

[164] A. Heidari, “Study of Synthesis, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Dosing,
Stability, Safety and Efficacy of Olympiadane Nanomolecules as Agent for
Cancer Enzymotherapy, Immunotherapy, Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy,
Hormone Therapy and Targeted Therapy under Synchrotorn Radiationâ€
, J Dev Drugs 6: e154, 2017.

[165] A. Heidari, “A Novel Approach to Future Horizon of Top Seven Biomedical Research Topics to Watch in 2017: Alzheimer's, Ebola, Hypersomnia, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Tuberculosis (TB), Microbiome/Antibiotic Resistance and Endovascular Strokeâ€, J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci 7: e127, 2017.

[166] A. Heidari, “Opinion on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
, Fluid Mech Open Acc 4: 157, 2017.

[167] A. Heidari, “Concurrent Diagnosis of Oncology Influence Outcomes in Emergency General Surgery for Colorectal Cancer and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Treatment Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Au329(SR)84, Au329–xAgx(SR)84, Au144(SR)60, Au68(SR)36, Au30(SR)18, Au102(SPh)44, Au38(SPh)24, Au38(SC2H4Ph)24, Au21S(SAdm)15, Au36(pMBA)24 andAu25(pMBA)18 Nano Clustersâ€, J Surgery Emerg Med
1: 21, 2017.

[168] A. Heidari, “Developmental Cell Biology in Adult Stem Cells Death and Autophagy to Trigger a Preventive Allergic Reaction to Common Airborne Allergens under Synchrotron Radiation Using Nanotechnology for Therapeutic Goals in Particular Allergy Shots (Immunotherapy)â€, Cell Biol (Henderson, NV) 6: 1, 2017.

[169] A. Heidari, “Changing Metal Powder Characteristics for Elimination of the Heavy Metals Toxicity and Diseases in Disruption of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Proteins Adjustment in Cancer Metastases Induced by Osteosarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, Carcinoid, Carcinoma, Ewing’s Sarcoma, Fibrosarcoma and Secondary Hematopoietic Solid or Soft Tissue Tumorsâ€, J Powder Metall Min 6: 170, 2017.

[170] A. Heidari, “Nanomedicine–Based Combination Anti–Cancer Therapy between Nucleic Acids and Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs in Covalent Nano Drugs Delivery Systems for Selective Imaging and Treatment of Human Brain Tumors Using Hyaluronic Acid, Alguronic Acid and Sodium Hyaluronate as Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs and Nucleic Acids Delivery under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Am J Drug Deliv 5: 2, 2017.

[171] A. Heidari, “Clinical Trials of Dendritic Cell Therapies for Cancer Exposing Vulnerabilities in Human Cancer Cells’ Metabolism and Metabolomics: New Discoveries, Unique Features Inform New Therapeutic Opportunities, Biotech's Bumpy Road to the Market and Elucidating the Biochemical Programs that Support Cancer Initiation and Progressionâ€, J Biol Med Science 1: e103, 2017.

[172] A. Heidari, “The Design Graphene–Based Nanosheets as a New Nanomaterial in Anti–Cancer Therapy and Delivery of Chemotherapeutics and Biological Nano Drugs for Liposomal Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs and Gene Deliveryâ€, Br Biomed Bull 5: 305, 2017.

[173] A. Heidari, “Integrative Approach to Biological Networks for Emerging Roles of Proteomics, Genomics and Transcriptomics in the Discovery and Validation of Human Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers from DNA/RNA Sequencing Data under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Transcriptomics 5: e117, 2017.

[174] A. Heidari, “Elimination of the Heavy Metals Toxicity and Diseases in Disruption of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Proteins and Cell Adhesion Intelligent Nanomolecules Adjustment in Cancer Metastases Using Metalloenzymes and under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Lett Health Biol Sci 2 (2): 1–4, 2017.

[175] A. Heidari, “Treatment of Breast Cancer Brain Metastases through a Targeted Nanomolecule Drug Delivery System Based on Dopamine Functionalized Multi–Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) Coated with Nano Graphene Oxide (GO) and Protonated Polyaniline (PANI) in Situ During the Polymerization of Aniline Autogenic Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Br J Res, 4 (3): 16, 2017.

[176] A. Heidari, “Sedative, Analgesic and Ultrasound–Mediated Gastrointestinal Nano Drugs Delivery for Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Procedure, Nano Drug–Induced Gastrointestinal Disorders and Nano Drug Treatment of Gastric Acidityâ€, Res Rep Gastroenterol, 1: 1, 2017.

[177] A. Heidari, “Synthesis, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Dosing, Stability, Safety and Efficacy of Orphan Nano Drugs to Treat High Cholesterol and Related Conditions and to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, J Pharm Sci Emerg Drugs 5: 1, 2017.

[178] A. Heidari, “Non–Linear Compact Proton Synchrotrons to Improve Human Cancer Cells and Tissues Treatments and Diagnostics through Particle Therapy Accelerators with Monochromatic Microbeamsâ€, J Cell Biol Mol Sci 2 (1): 1–5, 2017.

[179] A. Heidari, “Design of Targeted Metal Chelation Therapeutics Nanocapsules as Colloidal Carriers and Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB) Translocation to Targeted Deliver Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs into the Human Brain to Treat Alzheimer’s Disease under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, J Nanotechnol Material Sci 4 (2): 1–5, 2017.

[180] R. Gobato, A. Heidari, “Calculations Using Quantum Chemistry for Inorganic Molecule Simulation BeLi2SeSiâ€, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 5, No. 6, Pages 76–85, 2017.

[181] A. Heidari, “Different High–Resolution Simulations of Medical, Medicinal, Clinical, Pharmaceutical and Therapeutics Oncology of Human Lung Cancer Translational Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs Delivery Treatment Process under Synchrotron and X–Ray Radiationsâ€, J Med Oncol. Vol. 1 No. 1: 1, 2017.

[182] A. Heidari, “A Modern Ethnomedicinal Technique for Transformation, Prevention and Treatment of Human Malignant Gliomas Tumors into Human Benign Gliomas Tumors under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Am J Ethnomed, Vol. 4 No. 1: 10, 2017.

[183] A. Heidari, “Active Targeted Nanoparticles for Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs Delivery across the Blood–Brain Barrier for Human Brain Cancer Treatment, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's Diseases Using Chemical Modifications of Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs or Drug–Nanoparticles through Zika Virus (ZIKV) Nanocarriers under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, J Med Chem Toxicol, 2 (3): 1–5, 2017.

[184] A. Heidari, “Investigation of Medical, Medicinal, Clinical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Estradiol, Mestranol (Norlutin), Norethindrone (NET), Norethisterone Acetate (NETA), Norethisterone Enanthate (NETE) and Testosterone Nanoparticles as Biological Imaging, Cell Labeling, Anti–Microbial Agents and Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs in Nanomedicines Based Drug Delivery Systems for Anti–Cancer Targeting and Treatmentâ€, Parana Journal of Science and Education (PJSE)–v.3, n.4, (10–19) October 12, 2017.

[185] A. Heidari, “A Comparative Computational and Experimental Study on Different Vibrational Biospectroscopy Methods, Techniques and Applications for Human Cancer Cells in Tumor Tissues Simulation, Modeling, Research, Diagnosis and Treatmentâ€, Open J Anal Bioanal Chem 1 (1): 014–020, 2017.

[186] A. Heidari, “Combination of DNA/RNA Ligands and Linear/Non–Linear Visible–Synchrotron Radiation–Driven N–Doped Ordered Mesoporous Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles Photocatalysts Channels Resulted in an Interesting Synergistic Effect Enhancing Catalytic Anti–Cancer Activityâ€, Enz Eng 6: 1, 2017.

[187] A. Heidari, “Modern Approaches in Designing Ferritin, Ferritin Light Chain, Transferrin, Beta–2 Transferrin and Bacterioferritin–Based Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs Encapsulating Nanosphere as DNA–Binding Proteins from Starved Cells (DPS)â€, Mod Appro Drug Des. 1 (1). MADD.000504. 2017.

[188] A. Heidari, “Potency of Human Interferon β–1a and Human Interferon β–1b in Enzymotherapy, Immunotherapy, Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, Hormone Therapy and Targeted Therapy of Encephalomyelitis Disseminate/Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, F and G Virus Enter and Targets Liver Cellsâ€, J Proteomics Enzymol 6: 1, 2017.

[189] A. Heidari, “Transport Therapeutic Active Targeting of Human Brain Tumors Enable Anti–Cancer Nanodrugs Delivery across the Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB) to Treat Brain Diseases Using Nanoparticles and Nanocarriers under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, J Pharm Pharmaceutics 4 (2): 1–5, 2017.

[190] A. Heidari, C. Brown, “Combinatorial Therapeutic Approaches to DNA/RNA and Benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G), Fluoxetine Hydrochloride (Prozac and Sarafem), Propofol (Diprivan), Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA) (Aspirin), Naproxen Sodium (Aleve and Naprosyn) and Dextromethamphetamine Nanocapsules with Surface Conjugated DNA/RNA to Targeted Nano Drugs for Enhanced Anti–Cancer Efficacy and Targeted Cancer Therapy Using Nano Drugs Delivery Systemsâ€, Ann Adv Chem. 1 (2): 061–069, 2017.

[191] A. Heidari, “High–Resolution Simulations of Human Brain Cancer Translational Nano Drugs Delivery Treatment Process under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, J Transl Res. 1 (1): 1–3, 2017.

[192] A. Heidari, “Investigation of Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs’ Effects’ Trend on Human Pancreas Cancer Cells and Tissues Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment Process under Synchrotron and X–Ray Radiations with the Passage of Time Using Mathematicaâ€, Current Trends Anal Bioanal Chem, 1 (1): 36–41, 2017.

[193] A. Heidari, “Pros and Cons Controversy on Molecular Imaging and Dynamics of Double–Standard DNA/RNA of Human Preserving Stem Cells–Binding Nano Molecules with Androgens/Anabolic Steroids (AAS) or Testosterone Derivatives through Tracking of Helium–4 Nucleus (Alpha Particle) Using Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Arch Biotechnol Biomed. 1 (1): 067–0100, 2017.

[194] A. Heidari, “Visualizing Metabolic Changes in Probing Human Cancer Cells and Tissues Metabolism Using Vivo 1H or Proton NMR, 13C NMR, 15N NMR and 31P NMR Spectroscopy and Self–Organizing Maps under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, SOJ Mater Sci Eng 5 (2): 1–6, 2017.

[195] A. Heidari, “Cavity Ring–Down Spectroscopy (CRDS), Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy, Cold Vapour Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Correlation Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues with the Passage of Time under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Enliven: Challenges Cancer Detect Ther 4 (2): e001, 2017.

[196] A. Heidari, “Laser Spectroscopy, Laser–Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser–Induced Plasma Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues with the Passage of Time under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Int J Hepatol Gastroenterol, 3 (4): 079–084, 2017.

[197] A. Heidari, “Time–Resolved Spectroscopy and Time–Stretch Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues with the Passage of Time under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Enliven: Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety 4 (2): e001, 2017.

[198] A. Heidari, “Overview of the Role of Vitamins in Reducing Negative Effect of Decapeptyl (Triptorelin Acetate or Pamoate Salts) on Prostate Cancer Cells and Tissues in Prostate Cancer Treatment Process through Transformation of Malignant Prostate Tumors into Benign Prostate Tumors under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Open J Anal Bioanal Chem 1 (1): 021–026, 2017.

[199] A. Heidari, “Electron Phenomenological Spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues with the Passage of Time under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Austin J Anal Pharm Chem. 4 (3): 1091, 2017.

[200] A. Heidari, “Therapeutic Nanomedicine Different High–Resolution Experimental Images and Computational Simulations for Human Brain Cancer Cells and Tissues Using Nanocarriers Deliver DNA/RNA to Brain Tumors under Synchrotron Radiation with the Passage of Time Using Mathematica and MATLABâ€, Madridge J Nano Tech. Sci. 2 (2): 77–83, 2017.

[201] A. Heidari, “A Consensus and Prospective Study on Restoring Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles Sensitivity in Recurrent Ovarian Cancer by Extending the Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles–Free Interval Using Synchrotron Radiation Therapy as Antibody–Drug Conjugate for the Treatment of Limited–Stage Small Cell Diverse Epithelial Cancersâ€, Cancer Clin Res Rep, 1: 2, e001, 2017.

[202] A. Heidari, “A Novel and Modern Experimental Imaging and Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues with the Passage of Time under White Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Cancer Sci Res Open Access 4 (2): 1–8, 2017.

[203] A. Heidari, “Different High–Resolution Simulations of Medical, Medicinal, Clinical, Pharmaceutical and Therapeutics Oncology of Human Breast Cancer Translational Nano Drugs Delivery Treatment Process under Synchrotron and X–Ray Radiationsâ€, J Oral Cancer Res 1 (1): 12–17, 2017.

[204] A. Heidari, “Vibrational Decihertz (dHz), Centihertz (cHz), Millihertz (mHz), Microhertz (μHz), Nanohertz (nHz), Picohertz (pHz), Femtohertz (fHz), Attohertz (aHz), Zeptohertz (zHz) and Yoctohertz (yHz) Imaging and Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, International Journal of Biomedicine, 7 (4), 335–340, 2017.

[205] A. Heidari, “Force Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues with the Passage of Time under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, EC Cancer, 2 (5), 239–246, 2017.

[206] A. Heidari, “Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Photoemission Spectroscopy and Photothermal Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues with the Passage of Time under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, BAOJ Cancer Res Ther, 3: 3, 045–052, 2017.

[207] A. Heidari, “J–Spectroscopy, Exchange Spectroscopy (EXSY), Nucle­ar Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy (NOESY) and Total Correlation Spectroscopy (TOCSY) Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, EMS Eng Sci J, 1 (2): 006–013, 2017.

[208] A. Heidari, “Neutron Spin Echo Spectroscopy and Spin Noise Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues with the Passage of Time under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Int J Biopharm Sci, 1: 103–107, 2017.

[209] A. Heidari, “Vibrational Decahertz (daHz), Hectohertz (hHz), Kilohertz (kHz), Megahertz (MHz), Gigahertz (GHz), Terahertz (THz), Petahertz (PHz), Exahertz (EHz), Zettahertz (ZHz) and Yottahertz (YHz) Imaging and Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Madridge J Anal Sci Instrum, 2 (1): 41–46, 2017.

[210] A. Heidari, “Two–Dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy, Linear Two–Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Non–Linear Two–Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiation with the Passage of Timeâ€, J Mater Sci Nanotechnol 6 (1): 101, 2018.

[211] A. Heidari, “Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Near–Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Mid–Infrared Spectroscopy (MIRS) Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiation with the Passage of Timeâ€, Int J Nanotechnol Nanomed, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1–6, 2018.

[212] A. Heidari, “Infrared Photo Dissociation Spectroscopy and Infrared Correlation Table Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiation with the Passage of Timeâ€, Austin Pharmacol Pharm, 3 (1): 1011, 2018.

[213] A. Heidari, “Novel and Transcendental Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment Strategies for Investigation of Interaction among Human Blood Cancer Cells, Tissues, Tumors and Metastases with Synchrotron Radiation under Anti–Cancer Nano Drugs Delivery Efficacy Using MATLAB Modeling and Simulationâ€, Madridge J Nov Drug Res, 1 (1): 18–24, 2017.

[214] A. Heidari, “Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues with the Passage of Time under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Open Access J Trans Med Res, 2 (1): 00026–00032, 2018.

[215] M. R. R. Gobato, R. Gobato, A. Heidari, “Planting of Jaboticaba Trees for Landscape Repair of Degraded Areaâ€, Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2018, Pages 1–9, 2018.

[216] A. Heidari, “Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Phosphorescence Spectroscopy and Luminescence Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiation with the Passage of Timeâ€, SM J Clin. Med. Imaging, 4 (1): 1018, 2018.

[217] A. Heidari, “Nuclear Inelastic Scattering Spectroscopy (NISS) and Nuclear Inelastic Absorption Spectroscopy (NIAS) Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, Int J Pharm Sci, 2 (1): 1–14, 2018.

[218] A. Heidari, “X–Ray Diffraction (XRD), Powder X–Ray Diffraction (PXRD) and Energy–Dispersive X–Ray Diffraction (EDXRD) Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, J Oncol Res; 2 (1): 1–14, 2018.

[219] A. Heidari, “Correlation Two–Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Reso­nance (NMR) (2D–NMR) (COSY) Imaging and Spectrosco­py Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, EMS Can Sci, 1–1–001, 2018.

[220] A. Heidari, “Thermal Spectroscopy, Photothermal Spectroscopy, Thermal Microspectroscopy, Photothermal Microspectroscopy, Thermal Macrospectroscopy and Photothermal Macrospectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues with the Passage of Time under Synchrotron Radiationâ€, SM J Biometrics Biostat, 3 (1): 1024, 2018.

[221] A. Heidari, “A Modern and Comprehen

View Full Article: