Influence of extraction technique on nutrient content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of commercial apricot kernels


  • Emir Horozić Faculty of Technology, University of Tuzla
  • Jasmin Suljagić Faculty of Technology, University of Tuzla
  • Jasna Gojković Faculty of Technology, University of Tuzla
  • Eldin Halilčević Faculty of Mining, Geology and Civil Engineering, University of Tuzla
  • Darja Kubiček Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tuzla
  • Ermina Cilović Kazarević Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tuzla





Extraction, Apricot Kernels, Polyphenols, Antioxidants, Antimicrobial Activity, Nutrients.


This paper presents the results of influence of extraction technique on phytochemical composition and biological activity of aqueous extracts of commercial apricot kernels. Three techniques were used for extraction: maceration, ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction. The content of total phenols, flavonoids, bioelements, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity was analyzed in the extracts. Antioxidant activity was analyzed in vitro using DPPH and FRAP methods. Antimicrobial screening was performed by diffusion technique on reference strains from the ATCC collection. The content of total phenols and flavonoids is highest in extracts obtained by ultrasonic extraction and maceration. These techniques have proven to be the best for the extraction of macro and micronutrients. The aqueous extract obtained by maceration at 300 rpm for 3 hours showed a greater inhibitory effect against the tested microorganisms, compared to the extracts obtained by other techniques. The least efficient method of extracting bioactive components from apricot kernels is Soxhlet extraction, with the lowest dry extract yield of 5.5%.





[1] Benzie IFF, Strain JJ (1999) Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods in Enzymology 299, 15-27.

[2] Chen Y, Al-Ghamdi AA, Elshikh MS, Shah MH, Al-Dosary MA, Abbasi AM (2020) Phytochemical profiling, antioxidant and HepG2 cancer cells’ antiproliferation potential in the kernels of apricot cultivars. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 27(1), 163-172.

[3] Gezer I, Haciseferoğullari H, Özcan MM, Arslan D, Asma BM, Ünver A (2011) Physico-chemical properties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels. South Western Journal of Horticulture, Biology and Environment 2(1), 1-13.

[4] Havlikova L, Mikova K (1985) Heat Stability of Anthocyanins. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und Forschung 181, 427-432.

[5] Horozić E, Zukić A, Kolarević L, Bjelošević D, Ademović Z, Šarić-Kundalić B, Husejnagić D, Kudumović A, Hamzić S (2019) Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanol needle extracts of Larix Decidua Mill., Picea Abies (L.) H. Karst. and Pinus Nigra J. F. Arnold. Technics Technologies Education Management 14(1), 14-19.

[6] Olajire AA, Azeez L (2011) Total antioxidant activity, phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents of Nigerian vegetables. African Journal of Food Science and Technology 2(2), 22-29.

[7] Raj V, Jain A, Chaudhary J (2012) Prunus Armeniaca (Apricot): An Overview. Journal of Pharmacy Research 5(8), 3964-3966.

[8] Ramadan A, Gehan K, Nagwa EA, Shokry AA (2018) Phytochemical Screening, Acute Toxicity, Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of Apricot Seeds Ethanolic Extracts. Journal of Applied Veterinary Sciences 3(1), 26-33.

[9] Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology 299, 152-178.

[10] Stalikas CD (2007) Extraction, separation, and detection methods for phenolic acids and flavonoids. Journal of Separation Science 30(18), 3268-3295.

[11] TuÅ¡imová E, Zbyňovská K, KováÄik A, Michalcová K, Halenár M, Kolesárová A, KopÄeková J, Valuch J, Kolesárová A (2017) Human Urine Alterations Caused by Apricot Seeds Consumption. Advanced Research in Life Sciences 1(1), 68-74.

[12] Xu BJ, Chang SK (2007) A Comparative Study on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Legumes as Affected by Extraction Solvents. Journal of Food Science 72(2), S159-166.

[13] Yan J, Tong S, Li S, Lou J (2006) Preparative Isolation and Purification of Amygdalin from Prunus armeniaca L. with High Recovery by Highâ€Speed Countercurrent Chromatography. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies 29(9), 1271-1279.

[14] YiÄŸit D, YiÄŸit N, Mavi A (2009) Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 42(4) 346-352.

View Full Article: