A simple water treatment procedure using a moringa activated two-tier filtration and Nano-silver impregnated ceramic pot system

Authors

  • Timothy M. Akpomie Federal University of Lafia, P.M.B 146 Lafia, Nigeria
  • S. P. I Ogah Federal University of Lafia
  • Wombo Ngunan Patience Federal University of Lafia
  • Samuel Pheobe Sorphy Federal University of Lafia
  • Labaran Lawrencia Federal University of Lafia
  • Okewu E. Jonathan Federal University of Lafia
  • Ohiobo Amos Edekioyaihegbo Federal University of Lafia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14419/ijac.v10i2.32081

Keywords:

Ceramic Pots, Moringa oleifera, Nano-silver, Natural coagulants, Two-tier filtration.

Abstract

This study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of a customized ceramic pot treated with moringa oleifera and coated with silver sulphate solution for domestic water treatment. The customized pots were made by combining clay with sawdust at different ratios of 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50 respectively then coated with colloidal silver. The results obtained from all filtration pots indicated a 100% removal of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli and were thus suitable for deployment in drinking water treatment. All ratios of the filtration pots were found to be effective, however, the 60:40 was found to be more practicable because of its higher filtration rate. Additionally, it was noted that the various filtration pots were very effective in lowering the higher values of the physicochemical parameters of pH, TS, TDS, TSS and turbidity as compared to the values of the world health organization (WHO) standard. This filtration method was however, not very effective in the reduction of the elemental concentration of the respective raw water samples. Overall, the results obtained encouraged the use of the two-tier filtration system especially in rural and developing areas where sophisticated dosing equipment or appropriate dose of the moringa oleifera is not required as different dosages were all effective and did not pose any undesirable effect on the physicochemical and elemental composition of the treated water samples.

 

 

References

[1] Arantes, C. C., Ribeiro, T. A. P., Paterniani, J. E. S., Tateoka, M. S. S., & Silva, G. K. E. (2014). Use of natural coagulants based on Moringa oleifera and Tannin as filter aids for non-woven synthetics fabrics. Engenharia Agrícola, 34(4), 780–788. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-69162014000400017.

[2] Bhuptawat, H., Folkard, G., & Chaudhari, S. (2007). Innovative physico-chemical treatment of wastewater incorporating Moringa oleifera seed coagulant. Journal of Hazardous Material, 142, 477–482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.08.044.

[3] Beltrán Heredia, J., & Sánchez Martín, J. (2008). Azo dye removal by Moringa oleifera seed extract coagulation. Coloration Technology, 124(5), 310–317. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-4408.2008.00158.x.

[4] Cardoso, K. K. (2013). Coagulation diagram using the Moringa oleifera Lam and the aluminium sulphate, aiming the removal of color and turbidity of water. Acta Scientiarum, 35(3), 112–120. https://doi.org/10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.12268.

[5] Castillo, J., Bracho, N., Vargas, L., Romero, N., & Aldana, G. (2000). Coagulant selection for water treatment process in Plant BC^, Maracaibo, Venezuela. Revista Tecnica de la Facultad de Ingenieria, 23(3), 172.

[6] Flaten, T. P. (2001). Aluminium as a risk factor in Alzheimer’s disease, with emphasis on drinking water. Brain Res Bull, 55(2), 187–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0361-9230(01)00459-2.

[7] Francisco, J. P., Silva, J. B. G., Roque, O. C. C., Nascentes, A. L., & Silva, L. D. B. (2014). Evaluations of the effect of the seed extract of Moringa oleifera lam over the efficiency of organic filters in wastewater treatment of dairy cattle breeding. Engenharia Agrícola, 34(1), 143–152. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-69162014000100015.

[8] Franco, M., Silva, G. K. E., & Paterniani, J. E. S. (2012). Water treatment by multistage filtration system with natural coagulant from Moringa oleifera seeds. Engenharia Agrícola, 32(5), 989–997. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-69162012000500018.

[9] Ghebremichael, K. A., Gunaratna, K., Henriksson, H., Brumer, H., & Dalhammar, G. (2005). A simple purification and activity assay of the coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera seed. Water Research, 39(11), 2338–2344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.04.012.

[10] Jadhav, M. V., & Mahajan, Y. S. (2014). Assessment of feasibility of natural coagulants in turbidity removal and modeling of coagulation process. Desalination and Water Treatment, 52(31–33), 5812–5821. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.816875.

[11] Madrona, G., Branco, I., Seolin, V., Alves Filho, B., FagundesKlen, M., & Bergamasco, R. (2012). Evaluation of extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam seeds obtained with NaCl and their effects on water treatment. Acta Scientiarum, 34(3), 289– 293. https://doi.org/10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.9605.

[12] Ndabigengesere, A., Subba Narariah, K., & Talbot, B. G. (1995). Active agents and mechanism of coagulation or turbid waters using Moringa oleifera. Water Research, 29(2), 703–710. https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(94)00161-Y.

[13] PNUD. (2006). Informe Sobre Desarrollo Humano 2006. Mas alla de la escasez: Poder, pobreza y la Crisis Mundial del Agua. Nueva York: PNUD.

[14] Poumaye, N., Mabingui, J., Lutgen, P., & Bigan, M. (2012). Contribution to the clarification of surface water from the Moringa oleifera: case M’Poko River to Bangui, Central African Republic. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 90(12), 2346–2352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2012.05.017.

[15] Prasad, K. (2009). Color removal from distillery spent wash through coagulation using Moringa oleifera seeds: use of optimum response surface methodology. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 165(1–3), 804–811. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.10.068.

[16] Pritchard, M., Craven, T., Mkandawire, T., Edmondson, A., & O’Neill, J. (2010a). A comparison between Moringa oleifera and chemical coagulants in the purification of drinking water—an alternative sustainable solution for developing countries. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 35(13–14), 798–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2010.07.014.

[17] Pritchard, M., Edmondson, A., Craven, T., O’Neill, J., & Mkandawire, T. (2010b). A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 35(13–14), 791–797. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2010.07.020.

[18] Prodanovic, J. M., Antov, M. G., Sciban, M. B., Ikonic, B. B., Kukic, D. V., Vasic, V. M., & Ivetic, D. Z. (2013). The fractionation of natural coagulant extracted from common bean by use of ultrafiltration membranes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 51(1–3), 442–447. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2012.714892.

[19] Sutherland, J., Folkard, G., & Grant, W. (1990). Natural coagulants for appropriate water treatment: a novel approach. Waterlines, 8(4), 30–32. https://doi.org/10.3362/0262-8104.1990.020.

[20] UNESCO (2009). The United Nations World Water Development Report 3. Water in a Changing World. United Kingdom: UNESCO.

[21] Yin, C.-Y. (2010). Emerging usage of plant-based coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. Process Biochemestry, 45(9), 1437–14444 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2010.05.030.

[22] Adekunle, L.V, Sridhar, M.K.C, Ajayi A.A., Oluwade, P.A, Olawuyi, J.F., 2004, An Assessment of the health and social economic implications of sachet water in Ibadan Nigeria: a public health challenge. African Journal of Biomedical Research 7: 5 – 8 https://doi.org/10.4314/ajbr.v7i1.54057.

[23] American Public Health Association standard method for the Examination of water and wastewater (APHA), 1998, 20th edition, Washington, DC.

[24] Degrémont, 1979, 5th edition, Water Treatment Handbook. Halsted Press, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

[25] Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2009, Legal Notice on Publication of 2006 Census Final results Official Gazette 96 (2), B1-42. Available online at: http://placng.org/Legal%20Notice%20on%20Publication%20of%202006%20Census%20Final%20Results.pdf (Accessed 26th May, 2015).

[26] Folkard, G. K., Sutherland, J. and Shaw, R., 2000, Water clarification using Moringa oleifera seed coagulant. Available online at: http://www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/technical-briefs/60-water- clarification-using-moringa-oleifera-seeds.pdf (accessed 26th May, 2015).

[27] Göttsch, E., 1992, Purification of turbid surface water by plants in Ethiopia. Walia 14, 2328.http://www.deutschaethiopischerverein.de/tl_files/downloads/arbeitsgruppen/moringa/Walia-1992-Purification.pdf (Accessed 26th May, 2015)

[28] Ingallinelia, A. M., Stecca, L. M., Wegelin, M., 1998, Up-flow Roughing Filtration: Rehabilitation of a water treatment plant in Tarata, Bolívia. Water science and technology 37, (9), 105–112. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1998.0346.

[29] Katayon, S., Megat Mohd Noor, M.J., Asma, M., Thamer, A.M., Liew Abdullah, A.G., Idris, A., Suleyman, A. M., Aminuddin, M. B. and Khor, B. C., 2004, Effects of storage duration and temperature of Moringa oleifera stock solution on its performance in coagulation. International Journal of Engineering and technology 1, (2), 146–151.

[30] Katayon, S., Megat Mohd Noor, M. J., Asma, M., Abdul Ghani, L. A., Thamer, A. M., Azni, I., Ahmad, J., Khor, B. C. and Suleyman, A. M., 2006, Effects of storage conditions of Moringa oleifera seeds on its performance in coagulation. Bio resource technology 97, (13), 1455–1460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.07.031.

[31] Muyibi, A. S. and Evison, L. M., 1994, Removal of Total Hardness using Moringa oleifera seeds. Water Resources, 29, 1099-1105. European Scientific Journal August 2013 edition vol.9, No.24 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431

[32] Muyibi, S. A. and Alfugara, A. M. S., 2003, Treatment of surface water with Moringa oleifera seeds and alum– a comparative study using a pilot scale water treatment plant. International Journal of Environmental Studies 60, (6), 617–626. https://doi.org/10.1080/723032000087925.

[33] Ndabigengesere, A., Narasiah, K. S. and Talbot, B. G., 1995, Active agents and mechanisms of coagulation of turbid water using Moringa oleifera. Water Resources 29, (2), 703-710. https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(94)00161-Y.

[34] Okonko, I. O., Adejoye, O. D., Ogunnusi, T. A., Fajobi, E. A., Shittu, O. B., 2008, Microbiological and physico-chemical analysis of different water samples used for domestic purposes in Abeokuta and Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7 (3), 617-621.

[35] Oloruntoba, E.O., Agbede, O.A. and Sridhar M.K.C., 2006, Seasonal variation in physicochemical quality of household drinking water in Ibadan, Nigeria. ASSET- An International Journal, Series B 5.1: 70-81.

[36] Sadgir, P., 2007, Traditional water purification, 5th IWHA Conference, Tampere, Finland.

[37] Sánchez, L. D., Sánchez, A., Galvis, G. and Latorre, J., 2006, Multi-stage Filtration. International Water and Sanitation Centre, The Hague, the Netherlands. 11–18.

[38] Schwarz, D. 2000, Water clarification using Moringa olefiera. Gate Information Service, Germany, Technical Information W1e. Available online at: http://www.gateinternational.org/documents/techbriefs/webdocs/pdfs/w1e_2000.pdf (accessed 26th May, 2015).

[39] Sridhar, M. K. C. and Oloruntoba, E. O., 2008, Water, Development, Health and the Nigerian Millennium Development Goals, Chapter 5, In: T. Agbola,

[40] Silvestry-Rodriguez, N., Sicairos-Ruelas, E. E., Gerba, C. P., & Bright, K. R. (2007). Silver as a disinfectant. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology, 191, 23–45. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-69163-3_2.

[41] C.O. Olatubara, B. Wahab, L. Sanni and O. Ipingbemi (Eds). Environmental Planning and Health in Nigeria: Essays in honour of Professor Timothy Olayiwola Egunjobi (Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Ibadan), 83-112.

[42] Sridhar, M. K. C., Olaseha, I. O. and Oloruntoba, E. O., 2009, Springs of Ibadan: Sustainable alternate water supplies for urban communities. The Nigerian Field, 74, 47-68.

[43] Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON), 2007, Nigeria Standards for Drinking Water Quality: Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS 554), 15-20.

[44] Sutherland, J. P., Folkard, G. and Grant, W. D., 1990, Natural coagulants for appropriate water treatment: a novel approach. Waterlines 8, (4), 30-32. https://doi.org/10.3362/0262-8104.1990.020.

[45] Olubunmi Olufunmi Akpomie, Catherine Ese Balogun & Timothy Marhiere Akpomie (2020). Reduction of Some Heavy Metals in Fibre Cement Roofing Sheet Waste-Contaminated Soil by Consortium of Bacteria and Fungi. Environment and Natural Resources Research; Vol. 10, No. 3. 1927-0496; https://doi.org/10.5539/enrr.v10n3p43.

[46] Van Halem, D. (2006). Ceramic silver impregnated pot filters for household drinking water treatment in developing countries. Delft, Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.

[47] Van Halem, D. e. (2009). Assessing the sustainability of the silver-impregnated ceramic pot filter for low-cost household drinking water treatment. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 36-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2008.01.005.

[48] Watters, T. (2010). The Effect of Compositional and Geometric Changes to the Bending Strength of the Ghanaian Ceramic Pot Filter. Master's thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

[49] WHO. (2004). Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality: Third Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization.

[50] WHO. (2010). Ghana: Health Profile. Retrieved May 10, 2010, from World Health Organization: Global Health Observatory: Country Profiles: http://www.who.int/gho/countries/gha.pdf

Downloads

Published

2022-07-17

Issue

Section

Articles