Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of nanochitosan and chitosan encapsulated zinc oxide nanoparticles against bacteria and fungus


  • Sivanthaperumal . Research ScholarMuthurangam Arts college
  • Thaminum Ansari



Nanochitosan, Nanoparticles, Zinc Oxide, Encapsulated, Antimicrobial Activity.


In recent years, Nanochitosan and chitosan encapsulated Zinc oxide nanoparticles have gained tremendous attention related to their unique properties such as exhibit antimicrobial properties. On that account, synthesis of nanochitosan and chitosan encapsulated zinc oxide nanoparticles by ionotropic gelation method have fascinating properties such as eco-friendly, biodegradability, biocompatibility, bioactivity, nontoxicity and polycationic nature. Impact of nanochitosan and chitosan encapsulated zinc oxide nanoparticles on biological functions depends on its morphology, particle size, exposure time, concentration, pH, and biocompatibility. They are more effective against microorganisms such as, namely Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this paper, synthesis of nanochitosan, chitosan encapsulated zinc oxide and compare their potential applications as an antimicrobial agents were discussed. The nanochitosan and chitosan encapsulated zinc oxide nanoparticles have been characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were also examined.




[1] A. Agnihotri, Sunil, N. Mallikarjuna, Nadagouda and M. Aminabhavi, Tejraj, "Recent advances on chitosan-based micro- and nanoparticles in drug delivery". Journal of Controlled Release, 2004, 100 (1):528.

[2] K.M. Aiedeh, M.O.Taha and H. Al-Khatib, "Evaluation of chitosan succinate and chitosan phthalate as enteric coating polymers for diclofenac sodium tablets". Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 2005, 15 (3): 207–211.

[3] S.K. Shukla, A.K. Mishra, O.A. Arotiba and B.B. Mamba, "Chitosan-based nanomaterials: A state-of-the-art review". International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2013, 59: 46–58.

[4] J.H. Ryu, S. Hong, H. Lee, "Bio-inspired adhesive catechol-conjugated chitosan for biomedical applications: A mini review". Acta Biomaterialia, 2015, 27: 101–15.

[5] M.Z. Elsabee, E.S. Abdou, "Chitosan based edible films and coatings: A review". Materials Science and Engineering: C, 2013, 33 (4): 1819–41.

[6] M. Rai, A. Yadav, A. Gade, Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnol Adv ,2009,27:76–83

[7] J. Sawai, Quantitative evaluation of antibacterial activities of metallic oxide powders (ZnO, MgO and CaO) by conductimetric assay. J Microbiol Methods, 2003, 54:177–182

[8] CJ. Frederickson, JY. Koh, AI. Bush, The neurobiology of zinc in health and disease. Na Rev Neurosci ,2005,6:449–462

[9] SA. Kelly, CM. Havrilla, TC. Brady, KH. Abramo, ED. Levin, Oxidative stress in toxicology: established mammalian and emerging piscine model systems. Environ Health Perspect ,1998,106:375–384

[10] LE. Rikans, KR. Hornbrook, Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant protection and aging. Biochim Biophys Acta ,1997,1362:116–127

[11] L. Zhang, Y. Jiang, Y. Ding, M. Povey, D. York , Investigation into the antibacterial behaviour of suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO nanofluids). J Nanopart Res,2007 9:479–489

[12] R. Brayner, R. Ferrari-Iliou, N. Brivois, S. Djediat, MF. Benedetti, F.Fiévet, Toxicological impact studies based on Escherichia coli bacteria in ultrafine ZnO nanoparticles colloidal medium. Nano Lett, 2006, 6:866–870

[13] PK. Stoimenov, RL. Klinger, GL. Marchin, KJ. Klabunde, Metal oxide nanoparticles as bactericidal agents. Langmuir,2002,18:6679–6686

[14] Tippabattini Jayaramudu et al. Chitosan capped copper oxide/ copper nanoparticles encapsulated microbial resistant nanocomposite films, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2019.

[15] M. Erik Shapiro, “Biodegradable, polymer encapsulated, metal oxide particles for MRI-based cell trackingâ€. Magn Reson Med, 2015, 73(1): 376–389.

[16] Vu Khac Hoang Bui, Duckshin Park, Young-Chul Lee, Virginia Gómez, Silvia Irusta. “Chitosan Combined with ZnO, TiO2 and Ag Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Wound Healing Applications: A Mini Review of the Research Trendsâ€. Polymers, 2017, 9(1):21.

[17] Nurhanisah Othman et al. Synthesis and Optimization of Chitosan Nanoparticles Loaded with L-Ascorbic Acid and Thymoquinone, nanomaterials, 2018.

[18] S.Logpriya et al. Preparation and characterization of ascorbic acid-mediated chitosan-copper oxide nanocomposite for anti-microbial, sporicidal and bio-film-inhibitory activity, Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, 2018.

[19] K.G.H. Desai, C. Liu, H.J. Park, Microencapsulation, 2006, 23, 79-90.

[20] K. Kataoka, T. Matsumoto, M. Tokohama, T. Okano, Y. Sakurai, J. Controlled Release. 2000, 64, 143-153.

[21] Subhani Bandara , Codi-anne Carnegie , Chevaun Johnson , Feyisayo Akindoju , Ebonee Williams , Julia M. Swaby , Aderemi Oki , Laura E. Carson. Synthesis and characterization of Zinc/Chitosan-Folic acid complex, Heliyon, 2018.

[22] Sedigheh Vaezifar, Shahnaz Razavi, Mohammad Ali Golozar, Saied Karbasi, Mohammad Morshed, Mahdi Kamali. Effects of Some Parameters on Particle Size Distribution of Chitosan Nanoparticles Prepared by Ionic Gelation Method. Journal of cluster science. 2013,24:891-903

[23] S.T. Lee, F.L. Mi, Y.J.Shen, S.S. Shyu, Polymer, 2001, 42, 1879-1892

[24] P.N. Sudha, K.Rajeshwari, Srinivasan Latha, T.Gomathi, Sangeetha. “Preparation and Characterisation study of Nanochitosan (NCS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) binary blends with glutraldehyde as a crosslinking agentâ€, 2016.

[25] Gui-Yin Li, Yu-Ren Jiang, Ke-long Huang, P. Ding, Jie Chen. “Preparation and properties of magnetic Fe3O4–chitosan nanoparticlesâ€. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2008, 466:451–456

[26] M.M. AbdElhady, “Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan / Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Imparting Antimicrobial and UV Protection to Cotton Fabricâ€. International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, 2012, Article ID 840591, 6 pages.

[27] S. Singh et al. Relative contributionsof cystathionine beta-synthaseand gamma-cystathionase to H2S biogenesis via alternative trans-sulfuration reactions. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2009, 284(33):22457-66.

[28] Esra BILGIN SIMSEK “Investigation of photocatalytic Activity of chitosan/ Poly (vinylalcohol)/ TiO2/ Boron Nanocompositesâ€. Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 2017.

[29] Qi L, Xu Z, Jiang X, Hu C, Zou X, Preparation and antibacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles, Carbohydrate Research,2004,339:2693-2700.

[30] Jiayin Zhao and Jianmin Wu, Preparation and Characterization of the Fluorescent Chitosan Nanoparticle Probe, Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2006, 34(11):1555-1559.

[31] C. Perez, M. Pauli, P. Bazerque, An antibiotic assay by the agar-well diffusion method. Acta Biologiae ET Medicinae Experimentalis, 1990, 15:13-115.

[32] N. Erdemog lu, E. Ku Peli, E. Yes, R. Ilada, Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity assessment of plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacol, 2003, 89:123-1.

33. C.F. Bagamboula, M. Uyttendaele, J. Debevere, Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri, Food Microbiology,2004,21:33-42.