Integrating seismic refraction and electrical approaches in determining geophysical properties of near-surface cavities in Calabar-Ikom highway, Odukpani, Cross River State, Nigeria

  • Authors

    • Anthony M. George
    • Emmanuel Akaerue
    • Obinna Chigoziem Akakuru
  • Integrated seismic refraction tomography (SRT) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were used to study near-surface cavities with the aim of determining their geophysical properties. Five seismic refraction profiles around the study area were carried out using a 24-channel seismograph (ES-3000) while four ERT and ERT profiles were also conducted with IGIS resistivity meter and PLOTREFA software respectively. The data was processed using the RES2DINV software. Travel-time curves and velocity models were generated from the processed SRT data for each survey line, and 2-D inverted apparent resistivity models along the same lines were also generated for the purpose of comparison respectively. The results as obtained from the profiles showed SRT 1 (with a modelled velocity of 1,216 m/s in layer two at a depth of approximately 11 m - 20 m beneath the subsurface and an estimated cavity diameter of 11 m) and ERT 1 (with an apparent resistivity of approximately 826 Ωm and a depth of approximately 12.5 m – 16 m) indicates that the near-surface cavity outcrop links with a close-by mountainous structure in the EW direction. Profiles SRT 2 (with an approximately modeled velocity layer of 980 m/s in layer two at an approximate depth of 3.5 m – 7.0 m) and SRT 3 (with a modeled velocity layer of approx. 1,000 m/s in layer two at an approximate depth of 4.0 m – 7.0 m and 3.0 m – 9.0 m); ERT 2 (with an apparent resistivity of approximately 80 Ωm); and ERT 3 (with apparent resistivities of 116 Ωm and 182 Ωm at depths of approximately 3.5 m to 6.4 m and 4.0 m to 15.8 m) indicates that the surface cavity outcrop extends underneath the road network (Odukpani Central Section of Calabar-Ikom Highway) with a width of approximately 12 m. Profiles SRT 4 and SRT 5 (with an average velocity layer of 1,000 m/s in layer two at an approximate depth of 6.0 m – 13.2 m), and ERT 4 (with apparent resistivity ranging between 121 Ωm and 172 Ωm) at a depth of approximately 9.5 m to 20.0 m reveal that the near-surface cavity extends up to about 11 m across the highway and about 120 m away from the edge of the road. The above result will serve as reliable technical information to Transport and Building Construction Engineers on the presence of cavities along road networks and settlement areas in Odukpani Local Government Area. The recommendation is also made for the use of other geophysical techniques like Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) in conjunction with SRT and ERT to get higher-resolution imagery of the study area.

  • References

    1. Adegbola, R. B., Ayolabi, E. A., & Allo, W. (2012). Subsurface Characterization using Seismic Refraction and Surface Wave Methods: A Case of Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 6(12), 4925-4930.
    2. Aderinola, O. S., & Onifade, S. O. (2004). Effect of the Cost of Bitumen and Bituminous MAterials in Road Construction and Rehabili-tation. Copendium of Engineering Monograph, 1(3), 1-7.
    3. Adiat, K. A., Adelusi, A. O., & Ayuk, M. A. (2009). Relavance of Geophysics in Road Failures Investigation in a Typical Basement Complex of Southwestern Nigeria. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 5(1), 528-539.
    4. Adiat, K. A., Akinlalu, A. A., & Adegoroye, A. A. (2017). Evaluation of Road Failure Vulnerability Section Through Integrated Geo-physical and Geotechnical Studies. NRIAG Journal of Astronomy and Geophysics, 6, 244-255.
    5. Ajayi, L. A. (1987). Thought on Road Failures in Nigeria. Nigerian Eng., 22(1), 10-17.
    6. Aka. M, U., Okeke, F. N., Ibout, J. C., & Obiora, D. N. (2018). Geotechnical Investigation of Near-Surface Structures Using Seismic Refraction Techniques in Parts of Akwa Ibom State. Southern Nigeria. Modelling Earth Systems and Environment, 4, 451-459.
    7. AL-Menshed, F. H. (2018). How to understand theoretical background of electrical resistivity in a simple way. Retrieved from Re-searchgate:
    8. Araffa, S. A., Atya, M. A., Mohamed, A. M., Gabala, M., Zaher, M. A., Soliman, M. M., . . . Shaaban, H. M. (2014). Subsurface inves-tigation on Quarter 27 of May 15th city, Cairo, Egypt using electrical resistivity tomography and shallow seismic refraction techniques. NRIAG Journal of Astronomy and Geophysics, 3, pp 170-183.
    9. ArcGIS (2016). Location Map of Odukpani. Esri.
    10. Bery, A. A. (2013). High resolution in seismic refraction tomography for environmental study. International Journal of Geosciences. 4, pp. 792–796.
    11. Bharti, A. K., Pal, S. K., Priyam, P., Kumar, S., Srivastava, S., & Yadav, P. K. (2016). Subsurface cavity detection over Patherdih col-liery, Jharia Coalfield, India using electrical resistivity tomography. Journal of Environmental Earth Science, 75(443), 1-17.
    12. Burger, H. R., Sheehan, A. F., & Jon, C. H. (2006). Introduction to Applied Geophysics: Exploring the Subsurface. New York: W.W Norton.
    13. Cardarelli, E., Cercato, M., Cerreto, A., & Di Filippo, G. (2010). Electrical resistivity and seismic refraction tomography to detect bur-ied Cavities. Geophysical Prospecting, 58, 685-695.
    14. Chalikakis, K., Plagnes, V., Guerin, R., Valois, R., & Bosch, F. (2011). Contribution of geophysical methods to karst-system explora-tion: An overview. Hydrogeology Journal, 19, 1169-1180.
    15. De Giorgi, L., & Leucci, G. (2014). Detection of Hazardous Cavities Below a Road Using Combined Geophysical Methods. Survey Geophysics.
    16. Everett, M. E. (2013). Near-Surface Applied Geophysics. UK: Cambridge University Press.
    17. Ilori, A. O. (2016). Occurrence of shale soils along the Calabar Itu highway, Southeastern Nigeria and their implication for the subgrade construction. SpringerPlus, 5(209), 1-13.
    18. Ilori, A. O., Obianwu, V. I. and Okwueze, E. E. (2014). Seismic Investigation of Highway Pavement Failures in Parts of Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 19(2), 113-134.
    19. Jaafar, R. W. (2017). Imaging in karst terrain using the electrical resistivity and multi-channel analyses of surface wave methods. Mis-souri: S & T Library and Learning Resources.
    20. Khan, U., Niaz, A., & Basharat, M. (2018). Evaluating the Geological Structure of Landslides through Hydrogeological Modelling of Subsurface Sections, Using an Integrated Geophysical Approach. Global Research and Development Journal for Engineering, 3(12), 6-11.
    21. Kim, J.-H., Yi, M.-J., Hwang, S.-H., Song, Y., Cho, S.-J., & Synn, J.-H. (2007). Integrated geophysical surveys for the safety evaluation of a ground subsidence in a small city. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 4, 332-347.
    22. Levik, K. (2002). How to sell the message 'Road Maintenance is Necessary to Decision Makers'. Norwegian Public Road Administra-tion, pp. 1-4.
    23. McNeill, J. D. (1980). Electrical Conductivity of Soils and Rocks. Technical Note: Geonics Limited. Ontario, Canada
    24. Metwaly, M., & AlFouzan, F. (2013). Application of 2-D geoelectrical resistivity tomography for subsurface cavity detection in Saudi Arabi. Geoscience Frontiers(4), 469-476.
    25. NPC. (2006). Population of Cross River State. Abuja: National Population Commission. Retrieved from
    26. Nwosu, L. I., & Emujakporue, G. O. (2016). Seismic Refraction Investigation of Thickness and Velocity of the Weathered Layer in Emuoha Town, Rivers State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics, 4(6), 52-57.
    27. Obianwu, V. I., Udoh, J. T., George, A. M., & George, N. J. (2015). Seismic Early Warning Foundation Conditions Evaluation Survey for Civil Engineering Constructions in Akpabuyo Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Sci-ence & Technology, 6(6), 583-596.
    28. Okigbo, N. (2017). Causes of Highway Failures in Nigeria. Internationa; Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 4696-4697.
    29. Olson Enginnering. (2021). Seismic Refraction Tomography. Retrieved from Olson Engineering: . Date Rerieved: November 15, 2021.
    30. Petters, S. W., Nyong, E. E., Akpan, E. B., & Essien, N. U. (1995). Litho-stratigraphic revision of the Calabar Flank, S. E. Nigeria. Pro-ceedings of the 31st anniversary conference of Nigeria Mining and Geosciences Society. 57, pp. 755-760. Calabar: Planets Space.
    31. Putiška, R., Kušnirák, D., Dostál, I., Lačný, A., Mojzeš, A., Hók, J., . . . Bošanský, M. (2014). Integrated Geophysical and Geological Investigation of Karst Structures in Komberek, Slovakia. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76(3), 155-165.
    32. Reyment, R. A. (1965). Aspects of the geology of Nigeria. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.
    33. Rodríguez, J. A., Flores, M. A., Carmenates, Y. A., & Hernández, M. B. (2020). Electrical Resistivity Tomography for the detection of subsurface cavities and related hazards caused by underground coal mining in Coahuila. Geofisica internacional, 58(4).
    34. Samyn, K., Mathieu, F., Bitri, A., Nachbaur, A., & Closser, L. (2014). Integrated geophysical approach in assessing karst presence and sinkhole susceptibility along flood-protection dykes of the Loire River, Orleans, France. Enginnering Geology, 183, 170-184.
    35. Senkaya, G. V., Senkaya, M., Karsli, & Güney, R. (2020). Integrated shallow seismic imaging of a settlement located in a historical landslide area. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 79, 1781-1796.
    36. Shaaban, F., Ismail, A., Massoud, U., Mesbah, H., Lethy, A., & Abbas, A. M. (2013). Geotechnical assessment of ground conditions around a tilted building in Cairo–Egypt using geophysical approaches. Journal of Association of Arab Universities for Basic and Ap-plied Sciences, 13, 63-72.
    37. Shehu, A. D., Abdulrahman, A., & George, V. E. (2016). Assessment of the extent of soil corrosivity using vertical electrical sounding: a case study of Mbat-Odukpani, Cross River, Nigeria. Journal of League of Researchers in Nigeria, 17(1), 1-10.
    38. United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) (2002. Engineering Geology Field Manual. 2nd Ed. II.
    39. Akakuru O.C, Adakwa C.B, Ikoro D.O, Eyankware M.O, Opara A.I, Njoku A.O, Iheme K.O, Usman A.O (2023a). Application of Arti-ficial Neural Network and Multi-linear Regression Techniques in Groundwater Quality and Health Risk Assessment around Egbema, Southeastern Nigeria. Environmental Earth Science. https:// 10.1007/s12665-023-10753-1
    40. Akakuru, O.C., Opara, A.I., Aigbadon, G.O. et al. Characterizing gully-prone zones using geophysical and geotechnical approaches: a case study of Njaba South-Eastern Nigeria. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2023b).
    41. Akakuru O.C, Njoku B.U, Obinna-Akakuru A.U, Akudinobi B E.B, Obasi P N, Aigbadon G.O, Onyeanwuna U.B (2023c). Non-carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment and Prediction of Organic and Heavy Metal Pollution of Groundwater around Osisioma, Nigeria, using Artificial Neural Networks and Multi-Linear Modeling Principles. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 10.1007/s00477-023-02398-0
    42. Eyankware, M.O., Akakuru, O.C., Osisanya, W.O. et al. Assessment of heavy metal pollution on groundwater quality in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Sustain. Water Resour. Manag. 9, 189 (2023).
    43. Chizoba, J. C., Usman, A. O., Ezeh, C. C., Chinwuko, I. A., Azuoko, G. B., Akakuru, O. C., & Iheme, K. O. (2023). Hydrogeological assessment of groundwater resources within Isuikwuato and environ Southeastern Nigeria: Agenda for food agriculture and clean water policies. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 18
    44. Alexander Iheanyichukwu Opara, Anita Nneoma Ireaja ., Moses Oghenenyoreme Eyankware, Obinna Oko Urom, Diogu Okereke Ikoro, Obinna Chigoziem Akakuru, Emmanuel Dioha and Newton Ejiro Omoko (2023). Comparative analysis of techniques used for aquifer protective capacity studies in the Southeastern part of Nigeria. International Journal of Energy and Water. 10.1007/s42108-023-00251-2
    45. Omoko, Ejiro Newton.,Opara, Alexander Iheanyichukwu.,Onyekuru, Samuel Okechukwu., Ibeneme, Sabinus Ikechukwu., Akakuru, Obinna Chigoziem and Fagorite, Victor Immuden (2023). Pollution status and hydrogeochemical characterization of water resources in Onne industrial layout and environs, Rivers state, Nigeria. Sustainable Water Resources Management. 10.1007/s40899-023-00886-3
    46. Akakuru O.C, Akaolisa C.C.Z, Aigbadon G.O, Eyankware M.O, Opara A.I, Obasi P.N, Ofoh I.J, Njoku A.O, Akudinobi, B.E.B(2022a). Integrating machine learning and multi-linear regression modeling approaches in groundwater quality assessment around Obosi, SE Ni-geria. Environment, Development and Sustainability. 10.1007/s10668-022-02679-8 (Springer).
    47. Akakuru, O.C, Eze, C.U., Okeke, O.C, Opara A.I., Usman, A.O., Iheme O.K, Ibeneme, S.I, & Iwuoha, P.O (2022b). Hydrogeochemical evolution, water quality indices, irrigation suitability and pollution index of groundwater (PIG) around Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria. In-ternational Journal of Energy and Water Resources.
    48. Agidi, B.M., Akakuru, O.C., Aigbadon, G.O. Schoeneich K.,· Isreal H, Ofoh I, Njoku J, Esomonu I (2022). Water quality index, hy-drogeochemical facies and pollution index of groundwater around Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. International Journal of Energy and Water Resources.
    49. Eyankware,M.O, Akakuru, O.C, Eyankware E.O (2022a). Interpretation of hydrochemical data using various geochemical models: a case study of Enyigba mining district of Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, SE Nigeria. Sustainable Water Resources Management. https://10.1007/s40899-022-00613-4
    50. Eyankware, M.O., Akakuru, O.C. (2022). Appraisal of groundwater to risk contamination near an abandoned limestone quarry pit in Nkalagu, Nigeria, using enrichment factor and statistical approaches. International Journal of Energy and Water Resources.
    51. Alexander Iheanyichukwu Opara, Osi-Okeke, Ifeanyi Edward., Moses Oghenenyoreme Eyankware., Obinna Chigoziem Akakuru., Ifeanyi Chidozie Oli and Harry Moses Udeh (2022). Use of geo-electric data in the determination of groundwater potentials and vul-nerability mapping in the southern Benue Trough Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 10.1007/s13762-022-04485-1
    52. Oli, I.C., Opara, A.I., Okeke, O.C. Akaolisa C.Z, Akakuru, O.C, Osi-Okeke I, Udeh H.M (2022). Evaluation of aquifer hydraulic con-ductivity and transmissivity of Ezza/Ikwo area, Southeastern Nigeria, using pumping test and surficial resistivity techniques. Environ Monit Assess 194, 719.
    53. Eyankware M.O, Akakuru O.C, Ulakpa, R.O. E and Eyankware E.O (2022b) Hydrogeochemical approach in the assessment of coastal aquifer for domestic, industrial, and agricultural utilities in Port Harcourt urban, Southern Nigeria. International Journal of Energy and Water Resources. https:
    54. Obasi, P.N. ; Akakuru, O.C. , Nweke, O.M. and Okolo C.M (2022). Groundwater assessment and contaminant migration in fractured shale aquifers of Abakaliki mining areas, Southeast Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 58(1), 211 – 227
    55. Moses Oghenenyoreme Eyankware, Obinna Chigoziem Akakuru, Emmanuel Oghenegare Eyankware, Ezekiel Obinna Igwe, Star Otitie Umayah (2022c). Modeling approach to the investigation of groundwater corrosion and scaling potential at Benue State, Nigeria. World Scientific News 172. 179-212
    56. Obasi, P.N., Ani, C.C, Akakuru, O.C. & Akpa, C (2020). Determination of Aquifer Depth Using Vertical Electrical Sounding in Ihechiowa Area, Arochukwu Southeast Nigeria. EBSU Science Journal, 1(1), 111 – 126
    57. ssUrom, O.O., Opara, A.I., Usen, O.S., Akiang, F.B., Isreal, H.O., Ibezim, J.O. & Akakuru, O.C. (2021). Electro-geohydraulic estima-tion of shallow aquifers of Owerri and environs, Southeastern Nigeria using multiple empirical resistivity equations. International Jour-nal of Energy and Water Resources, 1-22.
  • Downloads

  • How to Cite

    Ukorebi Asuquo , B., M. George , A., Akaerue , E., & Chigoziem Akakuru , O. (2024). Integrating seismic refraction and electrical approaches in determining geophysical properties of near-surface cavities in Calabar-Ikom highway, Odukpani, Cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Advanced Geosciences, 12(1), 7-16.