Characterization of the geological and geotechnical properties of soil using the surface wave approach

Authors

  • Oluwatobi Oloye Obafemi Awolowo University
  • Adekunle Adepelumi Obafemi Awolowo University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14419/ijag.v3i2.3963

Keywords:

Coastal Plain Sands, MASW, Soil Stability, Velocity Variations.

Abstract

As part of the efforts to examine the elastic and engineering properties of the subsurface sequence at a proposed new power plant site in Edo State, a geophysical survey involving Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) was carried out. The MASW was adopted to determine the vertical and lateral variations in velocity beneath each seismic line. The MASW was carried out on two seismic lines each trending NE-SW. A geophone interval of 3 m was used, and the length of the seismic lines ranged from 60 – 90 m. The ES-3000 seismograph was used for the surface wave data acquisition and the Shear-Wave velocity structures of the area were obtained through the inversion of the acquired surface wave data. The one dimensional (1D) S-Wave velocity profiles along the lines were diagnostic of generally low velocity lithologies that suggest sand, clayey sand and sandy clay formations with relatively varying thicknesses. The subsurface layers delineated had shear-wave velocity values in the range of 63-400 m/s. They were classified using the NEHRP Seismic Site Classification, and all of them were in the range of stiff soil to soft clay soil. The bulk moduli (k) for these soils were in the range of 3.22-3.98 GPa. This depicts relatively low strength of the subsurface materials. The shear moduli (μ) values range from 7.15-7.43 MPa, which is indicative of low to moderate strength. The information provided in this study will aid the structural engineer or architect in foundation design of the proposed power plant. From the results of this study, it is concluded that although the subsurface layers are of relatively low strength, with the right intervention of the civil engineer, a suitable foundation can be designed for the gas plant.

References

[1] Adewumi, I. and Olorunfemi, M.O. (2005). Using Geoinformatics in Construction Management. Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(4), pp. 761-767. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2005.761.767.

[2] Adesida, A.A., Reijers, T.J.A., Nwajide, C.S. (1997). Sequence Stratigraphic framework of the Niger Delta. Paper presented at the AAPG International Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria.

[3] Aina, A., Olorunfemi, M.O. and Ojo, J.S. (1996). An Integration of Aeromagnetic and Electrical Resistivity Methods in Dam Site Investigation. Geophysics, 61(2), pp. 349-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1443963.

[4] Aki, K. (1957). Space and Time-Spectra of Stationary Stochastic Waves, with special reference to Microtremors. Bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute: Tokyo University, 25, pp. 415-457.

[5] Aki, K. (1965). A note on the use of Microseisms in determining the Shallow Structures of the Earth's crust. Geophysics, 30(4), pp. 665-666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1439640.

[6] Baker, R.D. (1997). Electrical Imaging and its applications in Engineering Investigation. In: McCann, D.M., Eddleston, M., Fenning, P.J., and Reeves, G.M (Eds.). Modern Geophysics in Engineering Geology. Geological Society Engineering Geology Special Publication, 12, pp. 37-43.

[7] Dorman, J. and Ewing, M. (1962). Numerical Inversion of Seismic Surface Wave Dispersion Data and Crust-Mantle Structure in the New York-Pennsylvania area. Journal of Geophysical Research, 67(13), pp. 5227-5241.http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JZ067i013p05227.

[8] Doust, H. and Omatsola, E. (1989). Niger Delta. AAPG Memoir, 48, pp. 201-238.

[9] Dutta, N.P. (1984). Seismic Refraction Method to study the Foundation Rock of a Dam. Geophysical Prospecting, 32, pp. 1103-1110.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2478.1984.tb00757.x.

[10] Ejewade, J.E. (1989). The Eastern Niger Delta: Geological Evolution and Hydrocarbon Occurences. SPDC Internal Report, Exploration Note 89, pp. 002.

[11] Evamy, B.D., Harembourne, J., Kameling, P., Knaap, W.A., Molloy, F.A., Rowlands, P.H. (1978). Hydrocarbon Habitat of Tertiary Niger Delta. AAPG Bulletin, 62, pp. 1-39.

[12] Gucunski, N. and Woods, R.D. (1991). Instrumentation for SASW testing, in Bhatia, S.K., and Blaney, G.W., Eds., Recent Advances in Instrumentation, Data Acquisition and Testing in Soil Dynamics: Am. Soc. Civil Eng., 1–16.

[13] Haney, M.M. and Miller, R. (2013). Introduction: Nonreflection Seismic and Inversion of Surface and Guided Waves. The Leading Edge, 32(6), pp. 610-611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/tle32060610.1.

[14] Hole, J.A., Zelt, C.A. and Pratt, R.G. (2005). Advances in Controlled-Source Seismic Imaging: Eos Transactions. American Geophysical Union, 86, pp. 177 and 181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005EO180001.

[15] Idornigie, A.I., Olorunfemi, M.O. and Omitogun, A.A. (2006). Integration of Remotely Sensed and Geophysical Data Sets in Engineering Site Characterization in a Basement Complex area of Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2(9), pp. 541-552.

[16] Jones, H.A. and Hockey, R.D. (1964). The Geology of Part of Southwestern Nigeria. Geol. Surv. Nigeria Bull, 31(87).

[17] Knox, G. and Omatsola, M.E. (1989). Development of the Cenozoic Niger Delta in terms of the Escalator Regression Model. Proceedings, Coastal Lowlands and Geomorphology, Kon. Nederl. Geol. Mijnb. Genootschap, pp. 181-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-1064-0_12.

[18] Lin, F.C., Schmandt, B. and Tsai, V.C. (2012). Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity and Ellipticity using USArray: Constraining Velocity and Density Structure in the Upper Crust. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(12), L12303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052196.

[19] Louie, J.N. (2001). Faster, Better: Shear-Wave Velocity to 100 meters Depth from Refraction Microtremor Arrays. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 91(2), pp. 347-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120000098.

[20] Miller, R.D., Xia, J.C., Park, B. and Ivanov, J. (1999). Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves to Map Bedrock: The Leading Edge, 18(12), pp. 1392–1396, http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1438226.

[21] Nazarian, S. (1984). In situ Determination of Elastic Moduli of Soil Deposits and Pavement Systems by Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves Method: Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Texas, Austin.

[22] Nazarian, S., Stokoe, K.H., II and Hudson,W.R. (1983). Use of Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves Method for Determination of Moduli and Thicknesses of Pavement Systems: Transport. Res. Record, 930, pp. 38–45.

[23] Obaje, N.G. (2009). Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences: Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria. Springer, New York. pp. 14, 109-113.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-92685-6.

[24] Okada, H. (2003). The Microtremor Survey Method: SEG, http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.9781560801740.

[25] Okosun, E.A. (1988). Review of the Early Tertiary Stratigraphy of Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 34, 27-35.

[26] Olorunfemi, M.O. (2008). Voyage on the Skin of the Earth: A Geophysical Experience. Inaugural Lecture 211, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. 75 pp.

[27] Olorunfemi, M.O. and Meshida, E.A. (1987). Engineering Geophysics and its application in Engineering Site Investigations: A Case Study from Ile-Ife Area. The Nigerian Engineer, 22(2), pp. 57-66.

[28] Omosuyi, G.O. (2008). Geoelectric Sounding to Delineate Shallow Aquifers in the Coastal Plain Sands of Okitipupa Area, Southwestern Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 9(2), pp. 562-577.

[29] Pan, Y., Xia, J. and Zeng, C. (2013). Verification of Correctness of using Real Part of Complex Root as Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity by Synthetic Data: Journal of Applied Geophysics, 88, pp. 94-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2012.09.012.

[30] Park, C.B., Xia, J. and Miller, R.D. (1998a). Ground Roll as a Tool to Image Near-Surface Anomaly: 68th Ann. Internat. Mtg., Soc. Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, pp. 874–877.

[31] Park, C.B., Xia, J. and Miller, R.D. (1998b). Imaging Dispersion Curves of Surface Waves on Multi-Channel Record: 68th Ann. Internat. Mtg., Soc. Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, pp. 1377–1380.

[32] Rix, G.J. and Leipski, E.A. (1991). Accuracy and Resolution of Surface Wave Inversion, in Bhatia, S.K. and Blaney, G.W., Eds., Recent Advances in Instrumentation, Data Acquisition and Testing in Soil Dynamics: Am. Soc. Civil Eng., pp.17–32.

[33] Sangodiji, E.E. and Olorunfemi, M.O. (2013). Geophysical Investigation of a Suspected Foundation Failure at Ogbomoso, Southwestern, Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 14(2), pp. 522-536.

[34] SeisImager/SWTM Manual (Windows Software for Analysis of Surface Waves) version 3.0 (2009).Geometrics, Inc.

[35] Song, Y.Y., Castagna, J.P., Black, R.A. and Knapp, R.W. (1989). Sensitivity of Near-Surface Shear-Wave Velocity Determination from Rayleigh and Love waves: 59th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, pp. 509–512. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1889669.

[36] Sjqgren, B., Ï•fsthus, A. and Sandberg, J. (1979). Seismic Classification of Rock Mass Qualities. Geophysical Prospecting, 27(2), pp. 409-442.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2478.1979.tb00977.x.

[37] Stokoe, K.H., II, Wright, G.W., James, A.B. and Jose, M.R. (1994). Characterization of Geotechnical sites by SASW Method, in Woods, R.D., Ed., Geophysical Characterization of Sites: Oxford Publ.

[38] Xia, J., Miller R.D. and Park C.B. (1999). Estimation of Near-Surface Shear-Wave Velocity by Inversion of Rayleigh waves: Geophysics, 64(3), pp. 691-700.http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1444578.

[39] Weber, K.J. (1972). Sedimentological Aspects of Oil Fields in the Niger-Delta. GeologeenMijnbouw. 50, pp. 559-576.

[40] Yilmaz, O. (1987). Seismic Data Processing: Soc. of Expl. Geophys.

[41] Yilmaz, O., Eser, M. and Berilgen, M. (2009). Applications of Engineering Seismology for Site Characterization: Journal of Earth Science, 20(3), pp. 546-554.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12583-009-0045-9.

Downloads

Published

2015-07-22

Issue

Section

Articles