Evaluation of a multicomponent vaccine in dogs

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    The concept of combined viral and bacterial vaccines has been tried in cattle, canine and humans. Use of multicomponent vaccines has numerous advantages over individual vaccine. In this study, apparently healthy 8-9 weeks old 41 puppies were divided into 2 groups. 31 puppies (test group) were vaccinated subcutaneously with a commercially available multicomponent vaccine containing live attenuated strains of Canine Distemper virus, Canine Adenovirus type 2, Canine Parvo virus and Canine Parainfluenza virus and inactivated antigens of Leptospira canicola and Leptospira icterohemorrhagiae. 10 puppies were kept unvaccinated (control). Test group puppies were given a booster after 4 weeks of primary vaccination. Serum samples from both the groups were collected on 4 occasions (0th, 28th, 42nd and 90th day) and were tested for antibody titres against Canine Distemper virus and Canine Adenovirus type 2 by Serum Neutralization test, against Canine Parvovirus and Canine Parainfluenzavirus by Haemagglutination Inhibition test and against Leptospira canicola and L. icterohemorrhagiae by Microscopic Agglutination Test. A significant rise (P 0.5) in antibody titres was observed against all the antigens after vaccination. The control group did not show significant variation in the antibody titres. All puppies vaccinated subcutaneously with this vaccine did not evoke any local/ adverse reactions.

  • Keywords

    Vaccine; Virus; Multi-Component; Serum Neutralization Test; Microscopic Agglutination Test; Haemagglutination Inhibition Test; Antibody; Titre; ANOVA.

  • References

      [1] Abdelmagid, O.Y., Larson, L., Payne, L., Tubbs, A., Wasmoen, T. and Schultz, R. (2004). Evaluation of the efficacy and duration of immunity of a canine combination vaccine against virulent parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, and distemper virus experimental challenges. Vet. Ther. 2004 Fall; 5(3):173-86.
      [2] Bestetti, G., Fatzer, R. and Fankhauser, R. (1978). Encephalitis following vaccination against distemper and infectious hepatitis in the dog. J. Acta. Neuropathologica, Springer Berlin, 43(1-2): 69-75.
      [3] Birnbaum, N., Barr, S.C. and Center, S.A. (1998). Naturally acquired leptospirosis in 36 dogs: serological and clinic-pathological features. J. Small. Anim. Pract.; 39:231-236. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.1998.tb03640.x.
      [4] Cornwell, H.J., Thompson, H., McCandlish, I.A., Macartney, L. and Nash, A.S. (1988). Encephalitis in dogs associated with a batch of canine distemper (Rockborn) vaccine. Vet Rec. Jan 16; 122 (3):54-9.
      [5] Day, M.J. (2007). Vaccine Safety in the Neonatal period. Journal of Comparative Pathology, Vol. 137, Suppl.1. pp. 51-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2007.04.019.
      [6] Decaro, N., Desario, C., Elia, G., Campolo, M., Lorusso, A., Mari, V., Martella, V. and Buonavoglia, C. (2006). Occurrence of severe gastroenteritis in pups after canine parvovirus vaccine administration: A clinical and laboratory diagnostic dilemma. Vaccine 25 (2007):1161–1166.
      [7] Duval, D. and Giger, U. (1996). Vaccine-Associated Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia in the Dog. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 10 (5): 290 –295. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.1996.tb02064.x.
      [8] Goldstein, R.E. (2005). Canine Leptospirosis In: Proceedings15th ECVIM-CA Congress, Glasgow, 84-87.
      [9] Gore, T.C., Lakshmanan, N., Duncan, K.L., Coyne, M.J., Lum, M.A. and Sterner, F.J. (2005). Three-Year Duration of Immunity in Dogs Following Vaccination against Canine Adenovirus Type-1, Canine Parvovirus and Canine Distemper Virus. Veterinary Therapeutics, Vol. 6, No. 1. pp. 5-14.
      [10] Jacobs, A. A., Theelen, R.P., Jaspers, R., Horspool, L.J., Sutton, D., Bergman, J.G. and Paul, G. (2005). Protection of dogs for 13 months against Bordetella bronchiseptica and canine parainfluenza virus with a modified live vaccine. The Veterinary Record, 157:19-23. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.157.1.19.
      [11] Klaasen, H. L. B. M., Molkenboer, M.J.C.H., Vrijenhoek, M.P. and Kaashoek, M.J. (2003). Duration of immunity in dogs vaccinated against leptospirosis with a bivalent inactivated vaccine. Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 95, Issues 1-2, 29:121-132.
      [12] Krakowka, S., Olsen, R.G., Axthelm, M.K., Rice, J. and winters, K. (1982). Canine parvovirus infection potentiates canine distemper encephalitis attributable to modified live-virus vaccine. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.; 180 (2):137-9.
      [13] Mouzin, D. E., Lorenzen, M.J., Haworth, J.D. and King, V.L. (2004). Duration of serologic response to five viral antigens in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 224:55-60. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2004.224.55.
      [14] Phillips, T.R., Jensen, J.L., Rubino, M.J., Yang, W.C. and Schultz, R.D. (1989). Effects of vaccines on the canine immune system. Can. J. Vet. Res.; 53:154-60.
      [15] Pratelli, A., Cavalli, A., Normanno, G., De Palma, M.G., Pastorelli, G., Martella, V. and Buonavoglia, C. (2000). Immunization of Pups with Maternally Derived Antibodies to Canine Parvovirus (CPV) Using a Modified-Live Variant (CPV-2b). Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series B, 47(4): 273–276. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0450.2000.00340.x.
      [16] Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994). Statistical Methods. 8th Edn. Affiliated East West Press.
      [17] Spibey, N., Greenwood, N.M., Sutton, D., Chalmers, W.S.K. and Tarpey, I. (2007). Canine parvovirus type-2 vaccine protects against virulent challenge with type 2c virus. Journal of Veterinary Microbiology; 128(1-2):48-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.09.015.




Article ID: 7426
DOI: 10.14419/ijbr.v5i2.7426

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.