Pediatric allergy: a common occurrence with multifarious implications
Keywords:Allergy, Children, Dental materials, Dental practitioner, Pediatric.
Pediatric professionals treat natureâ€™s most benevolent creation i.e., the child.
It is important to focus not only on oral health but also on the overall health of the pediatric patient because oral health is an integral part of total development.
There are various dental materials ranging from diagnosis to rehabilitation for the management of oral diseases that are not devoid of posing a potential risk of inducing allergic reactions to Pediatric patients in the dental setting.
Most importantly, a dental practitioner must be trained in medical emergencies and be capable of resuscitating a patient. Not only the dentist but also the assistants present in the clinic should be trained on how to manage any allergic emergency conditions in children in dental settings.
As some of these diseases have higher rates of morbidity and mortality, management of such conditions requires a multidisciplinary medical team approach consisting of physicians, dermatologists, Pediatric dentists, and ophthalmologists.
So, this review involves in-detail information regarding what is an allergy, history of allergy, allergic and immunological responses of the oral mucosa, dental materials prone to allergies, its diagnosis, and treatment modalities in child hoping that it will be helpful to every practicing pediatric professional.
 https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/allergy  Pawankar R et al 2013 WAO White Book on Allergy: Update, Executive summary ISBN-13: 978-0-615-92918-7 (digital)  Von Pirquet C (1906). â€œAllergieâ€. Munch  Med Wochenschr. 53 (5): 388â€“90. PMID 20273584. Reprinted in Von Pirquet C (1946). â€œAllergieâ€. Annals of Allergy.  Von Pirquet C.1911 Allergy. Arch Intern Med 7:259â€“288, 383-436. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1911.00060030096007.  Igea JM.2013 The history of the idea of allergy. Allergy 68: 966â€“973. https://doi.org/10.1111/all.12174.  Gell PGH, 1963 Coombs RRA, editors. Clinical aspects of immunology. 1st edn. Oxford: Blackwell.  Rajan TV. 2003 The Gell-Coombs classification of hypersensitivity reactions: a re-interpretation. Trends Immunol 24:376â€“379 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1471-4906(03)00142-X.  Gissi DB, Venturi M, Gabusi A, De Martino A, Montebugnoli L. 2011 Autoimmune diseases of oral cavity. Rev Health Care 2:113-36. https://doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v2i2.27.  Shafer WG, Hine MF, Levy BM. 2012 A Textbook of Oral Pathology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders p. 34-7.  Neville B, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquot JE. 2009 Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Elsevier.  Cawson RA, Odell EW.2008 Cawsonâ€™ s Essentials of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.  Guyton AC, Hall JE. 2000 Textbook of medical physiology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.  Ouellet.L. et al, 2017 understanding latex allergy in the dental setting A SELF STUDY GUIDE April  Dermata et al Balk 2015 latex allergy in dental practice J Dent Med, Vol 18 https://doi.org/10.1515/bjdm-2015-0011.  Donald J. Kleier, DMD, and Kelly Shibilski 1999 Management of the Latex Hypersensitive Patient in the Endodontic Office, DDS VOL. 25, NO. 12, DECEMBER https://doi.org/10.1016/S0099-2399(99)80307-0.  Tammannavar P, et al. 2013 BMJ Case Rep . doi:10.1136/bcr-2013-009464 https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2013-009464.  Grade AC, Martens BPM.1989 Chronic urticaria due to dental eugenol. Dermatologica178:217-220 https://doi.org/10.1159/000248431.  Karabucak B, Stoopler ET. 2007 Root canal treatment on a patient with zinc oxide allergy: a case report. Int Endod J 40:800â€“7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2591.2007.01275.x.  De souza Costa CA et al. 1993 Pulp-capping studies with zinc oxide-eugenol, varying the age of materials, correlated with fluidity. Rev Odontol UNESP, Sao Paulo 22(2):223-230.  Chandu GS et al. 2014 Dental Metal Allergy: An Update Review Article J Res Adv Dent 3:3:156-163.  R. C. Randall, 2002 â€œPreformed metal crowns for primary and permanent molar teeth: review of the literature,â€ Pediatric Dentistry, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 489â€“500.  Wataha JC, Lockwood PE, Khajotia SS, Turner R. 1998 Effect of pH on element release from dental casting alloys. J Prosthet Dent 80:691 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(98)70057-5.  Kilpatrick NM.1993 Durability of restorations in primary molars. J Dent 21:67-73 https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-5712(93)90148-J.  Liden C.1992 Nickel in jewelry and associated products. Contact Dermatitis. 26:73â€“75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1992.tb00887.x.  The International Nickel Company. 1960 Romance of nickel. New York.  Khan DA, Solensky R. 2010 Drug allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 125:S126â€“37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2009.10.028.  Tsakok T, du Toit G, Flohr C. 2014 Pediatric urticaria. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 34:117â€“39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iac.2013.09.008.  Marrs T, Fox AT, Lack G, et al. 2015 Arch Dis Child 100:583â€“588. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2014-306280.  Mirakian R et al 2009 BSACI guidelines for the management of drug allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 39(1):43â€“61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365- 2222.2008.03155.x.  Schnyder B. 2009 Approach to the patient with drug allergy. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 29: 405-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iac.2009.04.005.  Daniel E. Becker, 2013 Drug Allergies and Implications for Dental Practice Anesth Prog 60:188â€“197 https://doi.org/10.2344/0003-3006-60.4.188.  Stanley.F.Malamed 2014 Handbbok of local anesthesia : Elsevier 331 p.  Solensky R, Kahn DA. 2010 Drug allergy: an updated practice parameter. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 105:259 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2010.08.002.  Babu KS, Salvi SS. 2000 Aspirin and asthma. Chest 118:1470â€“1476. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.118.5.1470.  Rutkowski K, Nasser SM, Ewan PW. 2012 Paracetamol hypersensitivity: clinical features, mechanism and role of specific IgE. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 159:60â€“64. https://doi.org/10.1159/000335213.  Ewan PW, DuguÃ© P, Mirakian R, Dixon TA, Harper JN, Nasser SM, 2010 BSACI guidelines for the investigation of suspected anaphy-laxis during general anesthesia. Clin Exp Allergy 40(1):15â€“31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2009.03404.x.  Marquardt W, Seiss M, Hickel R, Reichl FX. 2009 Volatile methacrylates in dental practices. J Adhes Dent 11(2):101-07.  Stoeva I, Kisselova A, Zekova M. 2008 Allergic contact stomatitis from bisphenol-A-glycidyl dimethacrylate during application of com-posite restorations. A case report. J IMAB-Ann Proc ;book 2:45-46. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.135941.  Hallstrom U. 1993 Adverse reaction to a fissure sealant. Report of a case. J Dent Child 60(2):143-46.  Kal BI, Evcin O, Dundar N, Tezel H, Unal I. 2008 An unusual case of immediate hypersensitivity reaction associated with an amalgam restoration. Br Dent J 205(10):547-50. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.2008.981.  Peeters MS, Schroeter AL, Van Hale HM, Broadbent JC. 1984 Pacemaker contact sensitivity. Contact Dermatitis 11(4):214-18. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1984.tb00986.x.  Yamauchi R, Morita A, Tsuji T. 2000 Pacemaker dermatitis from titanium. Contact Dermatitis 42(1):52-3.  Hensten-Pettersen A. 1992 Casting alloys: side-effects. Adv Dent Res 6:38â€“43. https://doi.org/10.1177/08959374920060011401.  Lhotka CG, Szekeres T, Fritzer-Szekeres M, et al. 1998 Are allergic reactions to skin clips associated with delayed wound healing? Am J Surg 176(4):320â€“23 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9610(98)00197-4.  Sagomonyants KB, Jarman-Smith ML, Devine JN, Aronow MS, Gronowicz GA. 2008 The in-vitro response of human osteoblasts to polyether ether ketone (PEEK) substrates compared to commercially pure titanium. Biomaterials 29(11):1563-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.12.001.  Coetzee O, Green RJ, Masekela R, 2013 A guide to performing skin-prick testing in practice: tips and tricks of the trade S Afr Fam Pract ;55(5):415- 419 https://doi.org/10.1080/20786204.2013.10874388.  Nanavati RS, Kumar M, Modi TG, Kale H. 2013 Anaphylactic shock management in dental clinics: An overview. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ; 5:36- 9. https://doi.org/10.1080/20786204.2013.10874388 26 International Journal of Dental Research  Bartolomei FJ, McCarthy DJ. 1984 Anaphylaxis: Mechanisms, manifestations, and management. J Foot Surg 23:485-8  Przybilla B, Ring J, RuÃ«ff F. 2007 Anaphylaxis. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. Hautarzt 58:1025-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00105-007- 1434-6.  Chiu CY, Lin TY, Hsia SH, Lai SH, Wong KS. 2004 Systemic anaphylaxis following local lidocaine administration during a dental procedure. Pediatr Emerg Care 20:178-80. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.pec.0000117928.65522.9e.  Vervloet D, Magnan A, Birnbaum J,Pradal M. 1999 Allergic emergencies seen in surgical suites. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol; 17:459-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02737650.  Lieberman P, Camargo CA Jr, BohlkeK, Jick H, Miller RL, Sheikh A, et al. 2006 Epidemiology of anaphylaxis: Findings of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Epidemiology of Anaphylaxis Working Group. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 97:596-602. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1081-1206(10)61086-1.  Burks AW, Calderon MA, Casale T, Cox L, Demoly P, Jutel M, et al. 2013 Update on allergy immunotherapy: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology/European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology/PRACTALL consensus report. J Allergy Clin Immunol 131:1288- 96.e3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2013.01.049.  Hochfelder and Ponda 2013 Allergen immunotherapy: routes, safety, efficacy, and mode of action ImmunoTargets and Therapy:2 https://doi.org/10.2147/ITT.S31467.  Durham SR, Walker SM, Varga EM, Jacobson MR, O'Brien F, Noble W, et al. 1999 Long-term clinical efficacy of grass-pollen immunotherapy. N Engl J Med;341:468-75. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199908123410702.  Purello-D'Ambrosio F et al. 2001 Prevention of new sensitizations in monosensitized subjects submitted to specific immunotherapy or not. A retrospective study. Clin Exp Allergy 31:1295-302. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2222.2001.01027.x.