Sexual health knowledge among secondary school students in Morogoro, Tanzania: half full or full empty?

  • Authors

    • Gloria Kaale Postgraduate student-Sokoine University of Agriculture
    • Mikidadi Muhanga PhD Student- University of Zambia, Lecturer -Sokoine University of Agriculture
  • Sexual Health, Knowledge, Attitudes, Youth, Secondary School Students, Tanzania.
  • Background: Sexual health knowledge (SHK) is very crucial as the world is facing HIV/AIDS tragedy, increased cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unsafe abortions among adolescents. It is obvious that knowledge is an important prevention factor for any disease.

    Objectives: The study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitude on sexual health among secondary school students in Morogoro Municipality. Specifically the study (I: (i) examined students’ knowledge and attitude on sexual transmitted infections, (ii) analyzed student's awareness on early pregnancy prevention, and; (iii) determined students’ knowledge on issues related to puberty.

    Methods: The study involved 75 respondents from five secondary schools and 13 key informants through purposive sampling and simple random sampling techniques. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) ver.12.

    Results: Findings revealed that 79.8% of the respondents had knowledge on sexually transmitted infections, 86.5% were aware of

    methods of controlling early pregnancies; 83.9% have never used protective gears during sexual intercourses, and 54.7% did not understand a menstruation cycle.

    Conclusion: The study recommended for provision of sexual health knowledge to students to reduce incidences of early pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections; likewise on the need to use protective gears during sexual intercourses. Knowledge concerning sexual health is vital for all particularly for adolescents, as they are vulnerable to adopt negative behaviors if not guided properly and at the right age.

  • References

    1. [1] AlQuaiz AM, Kazi A & Al Muneef M (2013), Determinants of sexual health knowledge in adolescent girls in schools of Riyadh-Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study. BMC Women's Health 13:19.

      [2] Abubakar F (2009), More is needed to curb students drop out and early pregnancies. [] Site visited on 13/12/2015

      [3] Asrat A (2014), Assessment of Sexual Risk Behaviours of In-School Youth: Effect of Living Arrangement of Students; West Gojam Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. American Journal of Health Research. 2(2)78-83.

      [4] Bessant, J., Watts, R., 2007. Ethic and Sociology, in: Sociology Australia. Allen and Unwin, New South Wales.

      [5] Bonell C, Allen E, Strange V, Oakley A, Copas A, Johnson A, & Stephenson J (2006), Influence of family type and parenting behaviours on teenage sexual behaviour and conceptions. Journal of Epidemiology Community Health. 60(6):502-6.

      [6] Botting B, Rosato, M &Wood R (1998).Teenage mothers and the health of their children. Population Trends;93:19–28.

      [7] Centre for Reproductive Rights (2008). An International Human Right: Sexuality Education for Adolescents in Schools. New York: Centre for Reproductive Rights.

      [8] Coley RL & Chase-Lansdale PL (1998), Adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. American Psychologist, 53, 152–166.

      [9] Day RD (1992), the transition to first intercourse among racially and culturally diverse youth. Journal of Marriage and Family, 54, 749–762.

      [10] Glasier A, Gülmezoglu AM, Schmid GP, Schmid GP, Moreno CG &Van. Look (2003), Sexual and reproductive health: a matter of life and death. Lancet. 2006; 368(9547):1595–1607.

      [11] Herman L, Ovuga E, Mshilla M, Ojara S, Kimbugwe G, Adrawa AP & Mahuro N (2013), Knowledge, Perceptions and Acceptability to Strengthening Adolescents’ Sexual and Reproductive Health Education amongst Secondary Schools in Gulu District. World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology 2013 Jul 25; 7(7): 1787–1802.

      [12] Ikamba LM & Ouedraogo B (2003), High-risk sexual behaviour: knowledge, attitudes and practice among youth at Kichangani ward, Tanga, Tanzania. Action Research Reports 018.

      [13] Jorgensen SR (1993), Pregnancy and parenting. In T. P. Gullota, G. R. Adams, & R. Montemayer (Eds.), Advances in adolescent development (Vol. 5) (pp. 103–140). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

      [14] Kessy A (1996), Prevalence and risk factors for HIV and other STDs among youth in Moshi Rural District. M.A. Dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam

      [15] Klepp K, Ndeki S, Seha A, Hannan P, Lyimo B & Msuya M (1994a), AIDS education for primary school children in Tanzania: An evaluation study. AIDS, 8(8), 1157-1162.

      [16] Klepp KI, Ndeki SS, Thuen F, Leshabari MT & Seha AM (1994b), Predictors of high risk behaviour among Tanzania school youth. AIDS Care. 62:218–224.

      [17] Klepp KI, Mnyika KS, Kingσri NO, Leshabari MT & Kissila PE (2004), AIDS knowledge and risk perception in urban and rural communities in Arusha region, Tanzania. East African Journal of Public Health 1:40

      [18] Leshabari, MT (1988), Factors influencing school adolescent fertility behaviour in Dar es Salaam. PhD Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University. 102pp.

      [19] Manlove J (1997), early motherhood in an intergenerational perspective: the experiences of a British cohort. Journal of Marriage and Family;59:263–79.

      [20] Masatu M, Kazaura R, Ndeki S & Mwampambe R (2009), Predictors of Risky Sexual Behavior among Adolescents in Tanzania. [, f1000m, isrctn] site visited on 27/12/2010.

      [21] Moore KA, Morrison DR & Glei DA (1995), Welfare and adolescent sex: The effects of family history benefit levels, and community context. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 16, 207–237.

      [22] Muhanga MI & Malungo JRS (2017a), the What, why and how of Health Literacy: A Systematic Review of Literature. International Journal of Health, 5(2)107-114.

      [23] Muhanga MI & Malungo JRS (2017b), Does Attitude Associate, Correlate, Or Cause Behaviour? An Assessment Of Attitude Towards Health Behaviour Under One Health Approach In Morogoro, Tanzania, International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications (IJARP),, Volume 1 - Issue 3, September 2017 Edition, 82-91 #ijarp

      [24] Mwananzila L (2009), Tanzania men can help to stop school pregnancies [] Site visited on 13/12/2010

      [25] Resnick MD (1997), Protecting adolescents from harm: findings from the national longitudinal study on adolescent health. JAMA (278) 823-832.

      [26] Chacko S, Kipp W, Laing L & Kabagambe G (2007), Knowledge of and Perceptions about Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study among Adolescent Students in Uganda. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition; 25(3): 319–327.

      [27] UN OHCHR (2003), Convention on the rights of the Child, General Comment 3, supra note 23, para.16. Geneva: UN OHCHR.

      [28] UNAIDS (1997), Impact of HIV and Sexual Health on the Sexual Behaviour of Young People: A Review Update 27. Geneva: UNAIDS.

      [29] UNAIDS (2006), Scaling up access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. The next steps. Geneva: UNAIDS.

      [30] UNAIDS (2007), Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access [] Site visited on 10/12/2010

      [31] UNAIDS (2008), Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS

      [32] UNESCO (2008), School-centred HIV and AIDS Care and Support in Southern Africa: Technical Consultation Report, 22-24 May 2008, Gaborone, Botswana. Paris, UNESCO.

      [33] UNESCO (2005). Reducing HIV/AIDS Vulnerability among Students in the School Setting: A Teacher Training Manual. Bangkok: UNESCO. [] Site visited on 10/12/2010

      [34] UNESCO (2009). International Guidelines on Sexuality Education: An evidence informed approach to effective sex, relationships and HIV/STI education. Paris: UNESCO

      [35] URT (2004). Secondary Education Development Plan [ FINAL.pdf] Site visited on 27/12/2014

      [36] URT (2006). National Population Policy [] Site visited on 27/12/2014

      [37] WHO (2013), Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. Site accessed on 26/09/2017.

      [38] UNESCO (2009), International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education: An evidence-informed approach for schools, teachers and health educators. Vol.I The rationale for sexuality education.

  • Downloads

  • How to Cite

    Kaale, G., & Muhanga, M. (2017). Sexual health knowledge among secondary school students in Morogoro, Tanzania: half full or full empty?. International Journal of Health, 5(2), 120-125.