Gamma activity in Tigris river water and Rustumai wastewater treatment plant

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    The activity level of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radionuclides at selected locations of Tigris River and Rustumai water treatment plant (before and after treatment) has been determined by using NaI(Tl) gamma spectrometry. The results show that the total average activity values were 44.3Bq kg−1 and 789.6Bq kg−1 for 226Raand 40K, respectively. These values are higher than the world recommended values given by UNSCEAR, while the total activity concentration of 232Th was within the world recommended value of 30 Bq.kg-1. Radiological hazard indices such as: radium equivalent activity in Bq.kg−1, annual equivalent dose in Sv.y−1, external and internal hazard indexes, representative gamma index, dose rate in nGy.h−1 and annual effective dose equivalent (outdoor and indoor) in mSv.y−1 were calculated. The calculated indices were below the world recommended values, hence they have no serious effects on people health and environmental species and the Tigris River water can be considered un-harmful for the environment and humans as they are within the world median limits. In the case of Rustumai wastewater treatment plant samples for untreated and treated samples, the average activity concentrations of the three radionuclides were higher than the world recommended values.

     

     


  • Keywords


    Absorbed Dose; Equivalent Dose; Gamma Spectroscopy; Radioactivity; Wastewater.

  • References


      [1] L. Pujol, J.A. Sanchez-Cabeza, Natural and artificial radioactivity in surface waters of the Ebro river basin (Northeast Spain), Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 51(2) (2000) 181-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(00)00076-X.

      [2] H. Taskin, M. Karavus, P. Ay, A. Topuzoglu, S. Hindiroglu, G. Karahan, Radionuclide concentrations in soil and lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in Kirklareli, Turkey. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 100 (1) (2009) 49-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2008.10.012.

      [3] E.A.Shaker, A.H.M. Al Obaidy, H.R. Al Mendilawi, (2014) Environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWIPs) for old Rustamiya project. International Journal of Scientific Engineering & Technology Research (IJSETR) 3(12) (2014) 3455–3459.

      [4] A.H.M. Alobaidy, M. Al-Sameraiy, A.J. Kadhem, A. Abdul Majeed, Evaluation of treated municipal wastewater quality for irrigation. Journal of Environmental Protection, 1(3) (2010) 216–225. https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2010.13026.

      [5] R.K. Yadav, B. Goyal, R.K. Sharma, S.K. Dubey, P.S. Minhas, Post irrigation impact of domestic sewage effluent on composition of soil, crop and ground water-a case study. Environment International 28(6) (2002) 481–486. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(02)00070-3.

      [6] M. Qadir, D. Wichelns, I. Raschid, P.G.McCornik, P. Drechsel, A. Bahri, P.S. Minhas, The challenges of wastewater irrigation in developing countries. Agriculture Water Managment 97(4) (2009) 561–568. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2008.11.004.

      [7] O. R. Al-Jayyousi, Gray water reuse: towards sustainable water management. Desalination 156(1–3) (2003) 181–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0011-9164(03)00340-0.

      [8] H. Al-Hamaiedeh, M. Bino, Effect of treated grey water reuse in irrigation on soil and plants. Desalination 256 (2010) 115–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2010.02.004.

      [9] World Health Organization (WHO), A regional overview of wastewater management and reuse in the eastern Mediterranean region. California Environmental Health Association (2005).

      [10] United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Exposure pathways (2010), [Online] Available at http: // www. epa. Gov / rpdweb00 /understand / pathways. [Accessed on 5th, September, 2014].

      [11] World Health Organization (WHO), Radiological examination of drinking water, (Copenhagen: WHO) (1993).

      [12] A.A. Ali, N.A. Al-Ansari, S. Knutsson, Morphology of Tigris River within Baghdad city. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 16 (2012) 3783–3790. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-3783-2012.

      [13] [13] S.J. Palmer, Rehabilitation of Al-Rustamiya sewage treatment plant works-3rd extension, 1st ed. Bechtel International United Company, USA, 2004 (Project No. 617-24910).

      [14] N. Naskar, S. Lahiri, P. Chaudhuri, A. Srivastava, Measurement of naturally occurring radioactive materials, 238U and 232Th: anomalies in photopeak selection. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 310(3) (2016) 1381–1396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-016-4988-x.

      [15] B. Mavi, I. Akkurt, Natural radioactivity and radiation hazards in some building materials used in Isparta, Turkey. Radiation Physcis & Chemistry, 79 (2010) 933-937. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2010.03.019.

      [16] V. Ramasamy, G. Suresh, V. Meenakshisundaram, V. Ponnusamy, Horizontal and vertical characterization of radionuclides and minerals in river sediments. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 69 (2011) 184-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2010.07.020.

      [17] United Nations Scientific Committee Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Exposures from natural radiation sources, UNSCEAR Report, New York (2000).

      [18] United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Sources, Effects and risks of ionizing radiation, UNSCEAR Report, New York (1993).

      [19] J. Beretka, P.J. Mathew, Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, industrial wastes and by-products. Health Physics, 48 (1985) 87-95. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-198501000-00007.

      [20] Y. Örgün, N. Altınsoy, S.Y. Şahin, Y. Güngör, A. Gültekin, G. Karahan, Z. Karacık, Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in rocks and beach sands from Ezine region (C-anakkale), Western Anatolia, Turkey. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 65 (2007) 739-747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2006.06.011.

      [21] European Commission (EC), Radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials, Directorate General Environment, Nuclear safety and civil protection. EC Radiation Protection, 112 (1999).

      [22] S. Righi, L. Bruzzi, Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation in building materials used in Italian dwellings. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 88 (2006) 158-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2006.01.009.

      [23] R.M. Anjos, Natural radionuclide distribution in Brazilian commercial granites, Radiation Measurements, 39 (2005) 245-253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2004.05.002.

      [24] United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR Report, New York 1988.

      [25] K. Mamont-Ciesla, B. Gwiazdowski, M. Biernacka, A. Zak, Radioactivity of building materials in Poland. Natural Radiation Environment (Vohra, G., Pillai, K.C., Sadavisan, S., Eds.). Halsted Press, New York, 1982 551.

      [26] F.M. Hassan, A.H.M.J. Al-Obaidy, A.O. Shaawiat, Evaluation of Al-Shamiyah River water quality using the Canadian Council of Ministries of the Environment (CCME) water quality index and factor analysis. Desalination and Water Treatment, 116 (2018) 342–348. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2018.22553.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 30803
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijpr.v8i1.30803




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.