Efficacy of carvacrol oil against common broilers chickens enteric pathogens.


  • Ismail Radwan Sadat city universityPharmacology
  • Ahmed Orabi
  • Saber El-Hanbally
  • Hanaa A. Mabrouk






Carvacrol Oil, Enteric Pathogens


Gastrointestinal tract acts as a selective barrier for the broilers, however a wide range of factors associated with diet and infectious disease agents can negatively affect the delicate balance among the components of the chicken gut and, as a result, affect health status and production performance of birds in commercial poultry industries. Our investigation aimed to determine the incidence of the most common broilers chicken enteric pathogens as Salmonella, E.coli and C.perfringens and also measure efficacy of carvacrol oil on these pathogens. 250 internal organs were analyzed for enteric pathogens in (table 1, 2) which revealed high incidence of E.coli (n=18) followed with Salmonella (n=10) and C.perfringens (n=8).Serotyping of Salmonella isolates showed that the predominant serovars is S.Kentuky (n=3) then S.Typhimurium and S.Infants (n=2), while O114:K90 O78:K80 O25:K11 were the predominant E.coli serotypes (n=4) for each one. Antibiogram revealed that isolates were resistance to Cefotaxime, Amoxicillin, Doxycycline and Enrofloxacin. Results indicated that, MIC of most isolates lowered after 24hr exposure to 0.001% of carvacrol and the growth of tested isolates was inhibited at 0.1% carvacrol concentration.




[1] Aarestrup FM., Seyforth AM., Emborg HD., Pedersen K., Hendriksen R., Bager F (2001). Effect of abolishment of the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion on occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in faecal enterococci from food animals in Denmark. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 45: 2054–2059. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.45.7.2054-2059.2001.

[2] Ahsani M.R., Shamsadini M.B., Esmailizadeh A.K. and Moham-madabadi M.R. (2011). Genotyping of isolates of Clostridium perfringens from vaccinatedand unvaccinated sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 95, 65-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2010.09.001.

[3] Al Laham.S.H; and Al Fadel, F. (2013). Antibacterial effectiveness of many plant extracts against the resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus .Int.J.Pharma.Clin.Res.5, 72-78.

[4] Amiri H. (2012). Essential oils composition and antixodiant properties of three thymus species. Evid based Comp Alt Med 728065. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/728065.

[5] BenArafa, A., Combes, S., Preziosis-Belloy, L., Gontard, N. and Challer, P., (2006). Antibacterial activity of carvacrol related to its chemical structure.Lett.Appl.Microbiol.43, 149-154. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.01938.x.

[6] Carli, S., Ikuta, N., Lehman, F.K. and Silveira, V.P. (2015). Virulence gene content in E.coli isolates from poultry flocks with clinical signs of collibacillosis in Brazil .Poultry science .94(11), 2635-2640. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev256.

[7] CLSI. (2017). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Formerly NCCLS), Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Twentieth Informational Supplement. Approved Standard M100-S24, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA.

[8] Cowen, B. S., Schwartz, L. D., Wilson, R. A. and Ambrus, S. I. (1987). Experimentally induced necrotic enteritis in chickens. Avian Dis. 31:904–906. https://doi.org/10.2307/1591050.

[9] Desmidt, M., Ducatelle, R. & Haesebrouck, F. (1998a). Serological and bacteriological observations on experimental infection with Salmonella hadar in chickens. Veterinary Microbiology, 60, 259-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1135(98)00154-0.

[10] Kauffmann, F. and Das- Kauffmann, W. (2001). Antigenic formulas of the Salmonella serovars. WHO co-operating center for reference and research on Salmonella. EighthEd, cited by pop off, M.Y., Paris, France.

[11] Finegold, S. and Martin, W. (1982): Diagnosis Microbiology, 6th ed. Mosby Co. St. Lowies, Toronto.

[12] ISO 6579 (2002). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella spp. First edition: International Organization for Standardization.

[13] Koneman, E.W., Allen, S.D., Janda, W.M., Schreckenberger, P.C. and Winn, W.C., Jr., (1997). The Enterobacteriaceae, p. 171-252. In A. Allen, H. Collins, S. Deitch, H. Ewan, K. Rule, and K. Kelley-Luedtke (ed.), Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.

[14] Nolan, L.K., Wooley, R., Brown, J. and Payeur, J., (1991). Comparison of phenotypic characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from healthy and ill (-infected) chickens. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 52, 1512–1517

[15] Oliveira,A. and Cunha,M.I. (2008). Bacterial biofilms with emphasis on coagulase negative staphylococci. J.Venom. Anim. Toxins. Incl. Trop. Dis. 14,572-596. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-91992008000400003.

[16] Panayotis, T., Tassios Alkiviadis C., Vatopoulos, Efstratios Mainas, Dimitra Gennimata, John Papadakis, Asterios Tsiftsoglou, Victoria Kalapothaki, Nicholas J. Legakis (1997). Molecular analysis of ampicillinâ€resistant sporadic Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi B clinical isolates. Clinical microbiology and infection. Volume3, Issue3 .June 1997.Pages 317-323

[17] Pang, T., Bhutta, Z. A., Finlay, B. B., and Altwegg M. (1995). Typhoid fever and other salmonellosis: a continuing challenge. Trends Microbiol. 3 253-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-842X(00)88937-4.

[18] Paulus, C., and Ruckebusch, J. P. (1996). Necrotic entertis (NE). Zootecn. Int. XIX (6):40–42.

[19] Quinn, P.J., Markey, B.K., Leonard, F.C., FitzPatrick, E.S., Fanning, S. and Hartigan, P.J. (2011). Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease. Second ed: Blackwell Science Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4051-5823-7.

[20] Russo, T.A. and Gorbach, S.L. (1987). Anaerobic Infections: Sporoformers, Diagnostic Procedures for Bacterial Infections. Ed: Wentworth, B.B. Seventh Edition. American Public Health Association. Inc.,Washington.

[21] Shane, S. M., Gyimah, J. E., Harrington, K. S. and Snider, T. G. (1985). Etiology and pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis. Vet. Res. Commun. Nine: 269–287. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02215151.

[22] Si, W., Gong, J., Tsao, R., Zhou, T., Yu, H., Poppe, C., Johnson, R. and Du, Z. (2006). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and structurally related synthetic food additives towards selected pathogenic and beneficial gut bacteria. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 100, 296–305. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02789.x.

[23] Tsai, S. S., and Tung, M. C. (1981). An outbreak of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. J. Chinese Soc. Vet. Sci. 7:13–17.

[24] Tschirdewahn, B., S. Notermans, K. Wernars, and Untermann, F. (1991). The presence of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens strains in feces of various animals. Internat. J. Food Microbiol.14:175–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(91)90105-X.

[25] Zhu,H.D.M;Fox,L. and Zhu,M.J. (2016). Bactericidal effect of cinnamon cassia oil against bovine mastitis bacterial pathogens. Food control 66, 291-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.02.013.

View Full Article: