The possible protective effects of saccharum officinarum l. (sugar cane) juice co-supplementation on gentamicin induced acute renal toxicity in adult albino rats


  • Asmaa Y. A. Hussein Banha University
  • Rabab Shaban EL-Shafey Banha University





Histopathology, Gentamicin, Nephrotoxicity, Oxidative Stress and Sugar Cane Juice.


Gentamicin (GM) is an effective and probably the most commonly used aminoglycosides antibiotic, however the risk of causing nephrotoxicity limits its use. In the present study, the possible protective effects of Saccharum officinarum L. (sugar cane juice) on gentamicin induced acute oxidative renal injury in experimental rats were investigated. Twenty adult albino rats were randomly allocated into four groups (5 rats in each) and treated once daily for a period of 7 days as follows; group A being the negative control and was injected intraperitoneal with normal saline, group B (sugar cane juice treated group) was given sugar cane juice orally at a dose of 15 ml/kg/day, group C (GM treated group) and group D (sugar cane juice + GM treated group) were the experimental groups and were injected intraperitoneal with (80 mg/kg/day GM) & (sugar cane juice 15 ml/kg/day orally + 80 mg/kg/day GM intraperitoneal) respectively. By the end of the experiment, the biochemical kidney functions tests (urinary cystatin C and kidney injury molecule-1, blood urea and creatinine) were investigated. Also, oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde [MDA] level, superoxide dismutase [SOD] & glutathione peroxidase [GPX] enzymatic activity) in renal tissue were evaluated. Histopathological examinations of kidney were done to assess the degree of renal protection induced by sugarcane juice, Gentamicin treated rats showed; marked significant rise in the biochemical kidney functions tests and lipid peroxidation (MDA) parameter in renal tissues, along with significant reduction in renal tissue antioxidant enzymatic activity of both SOD & GPX. However, co-administration of sugar cane juice in group D leading to marked reduction in previous biochemical markers and MDA levels together with significant elevated renal SOD &GPX enzymatic activity which nearly tend to return to normal values. The histopathological examination of groups A and B showed normal kidney structure which was deranged in group C (GM treated), whereas group D showed significant recovery in histological structures. Gentamicin induced acute renal injury and oxidative damage. Co-administration of sugar cane juice may reduce this damage by improving antioxidant defense and tissue integrity in experimental albino rats.





[1] Ali BH (1995). Gentamicin nephrotoxicity in humans and animals: Some recent research. Gen Pharmacol. 26(7), 1477–1487.

[2] Awodele O, Tomoye OP, Quashie NB, Amagon KI and Ogunnowo SA (2015). Gentamicin nephrotoxicity: Animal experimental correlate with human pharmaco vigilance outcome. Biomed J. 38(2), 125-130.

[3] Bancroft JD & Layton C (2019). The hematoxylins and eosin. In: Bancroft’s THEORYand PRACTICE of HISTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES, (Suvarna SK, Layton C & Bancroft JD eds.), 8th ed. ELSEVIER, China, Chapter (10), pp. 126-183.

[4] Burtis CA (2007). tietz fundamentals of clinical chemistry. By: Burtis CA, (Ashwood ER and Bruns DE eds.). 6th edition, St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, pp.29-150.

[5] Chattopadhyay A, Biswas S, Bandyopadhyay D, Sarkar C & Datta AG (2003): Effect of isoproterenol on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes of myocardial tissue of mice and protection by quinidine. Mol Cell Biochm. 245 (1-2), 43-49.

[6] Choi JJ, Moffett BS, McDade EJ & Palazzi DL (2011). Altered gentamicin serum concentrations in obese pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 30 (4), 347–349.

[7] Cunha MA & Schor N (2002): Effects of gentamicin, lipopolysaccharide, and contrast media on immortalized proximal tubular cells. Ren Fail. 24(6), 687–690.

[8] Duarte-Almeida JM, Negri G, Salatino A, de Carvalho JE & Lajolo FM (2007). Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of a tricin acylated glycoside from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) juice. Phytochemistry. 68(8), 1165–1171.

[9] Farombi EO & Ekor M (2006). Curcumin attenuates gentamicin-induced renal oxidative damage in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 44 (9), 1443-1448.

[10] Genovese MI & Lajolo FM (2002). Isoflavones in soy-based foods consumed in Brazil: levels, distribution and estimated intake. J Agric Food Chem. 50 (21), 5987–5993.

[11] Jain A, Nahata A & Singhai AK (2013). Effect of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) leaves on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Sci Pharm. 81(4). 1071-1087. https://doi: 10.3797/scipharm.1302-09.

[12] Kadam US, Ghosh SB, Strayo D, Suprasanna P, Devasagayam TPA & Bapat VA (2008). Antioxidant activity in sugarcane juice and its protective role against radiation induced DNA damage. Food Chemistry. 106 (3), 1154–1160.

[13] Kakkar P, Das B & Viswanathan PN (1984). A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 21(2), 130- 132.

[14] Karahan I, Atessahin A, Yilmaz S, Ceribasi AO, Sakin F (2005). Protective effect of lycopene on gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in rats. Toxicology. 215 (3), 198-204.

[15] Khan SA, Priyamvada S, Farooq N, Khan S, Wasim KM, Yusufi ANK (2009). Protective effect of green tea extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney. Pharmacol Res. 59: 254-262.


[17] Laurent G, Kishore BK & Tulkens PM (1999). Aminoglycoside-induced renal phospho-lipidosis and nephrotoxicity. Biochem Pharmacol. 40 (11), 2383-2392.

[18] Mahmood I & Waters DH (1994). Comparative study of uranyl nitrate and cisplatin induced renal failure in rate.Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet.19(4), 327-336.

[19] Martínez-Salgado C, López-Hernández FJ & López-Novoa JM (2007). Glomerular nephrotoxicity of aminonucleosides. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 223(1), 86-98. PubMed] [Google Scholar].

[20] Maurício Duarte-Almeida J, Novoa AV, Linares AF, Lajolo FM & Inés Genovese M (2006). Antioxidant Activity of Phenolics Compounds from Sugar Cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Juice. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 61(4), 187–192.

[21] Mestry SN, Gawali NB, Pai SA, Gursahani MS, Dhodi JB, Munshi R, Juvekar AR (2017). Punica granatum improves renal function in gentamicin-induced nephropathy in rats via attenuation of oxidative stress, J Ayurveda Integr Med. XXX, 1-9.

[22] Mingeot-Leclercq MP, Glupczynski Y & Tulkens PM (1999). Aminoglycosides: activity and resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.43(4):727-37.

[23] Moghaddam AH, Javaheiri M, Nabavi SF, Mohdavi MR, Nabavi SM & Ebrahimzadeh MA (2010). Protective role of pleurotus porrigens (AngelHs wings) against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol. 14(12), 1011-1014.

[24] Padmini MP & Kumar JV (2012). A histopathological study on gentamycin induced nephrotoxicity in experimental albino rats. IOSRJDMS.1 (1), 14-17.

[25] Pal R, Vaiphei K, Sikander A, Singh K & Rana SV (2006). Effect of garlic on isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 12(4), 636–639.

[26] Pallavi R, Elakkiya S, Tennety SSR & Suganya Devi P (2012). Anthocyanin analysis and its Anticancer Property from Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L) Peel. IJRPC. 2(2), 338–345.

[27] Parikh CR, Lu JC, Coca SG & Devarajan P (2010). Tubular proteinuria in acute kidney injury: a critical evaluation of current status and future promise. Ann Clin Biochem. 47 (Pt4), 301–312.

[28] Pirttila TJ, Manninen A, Jutila L, Nissinen J, Kalviainen R, Vapalahti M, Immonen A, Paljarvi L, Karkola K, Alafuzoff I, Mervaala E & Pitkanen A (2005). Cystatin C expression is associated with granule cell dispersion in epilepsy. Ann Neurol. 58(2), 211-223.

[29] Polat A, Parlakpinar H, Tasdemir S, Colak C, Vardi N, Ucar M, Emre MH & Acet A(2006). Protective role of aminoguanidine on gentamicin-induced acute renal failure in rats. Acta Histochem. 108 (5) ,365-371.

[30] Reddy KP, Subhani SM, Khan PA & Kumar KB (1995). Effect of light and benzyl adenine and dark - treated graving rice (Oryza sativa) leaves - changes in peroxidases activity. Plant Cell Physiol. 26, 987 – 994.

[31] Seckiner I, Bayrak O, Can M, Mungan AG & Mungan NA (2014). Garlic supplemented diet attenuates gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats. Int Braz J Urol. 40(4), 562-567.

[32] Shalaby MA & Hammoda A A (2014). Evaluation of nephroprotective and diuretic effects of parsley and turmeric herbs on gentamicin nephrotoxic rats. World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, 3(12), 1729-1744.

[33] Singh AP, Junemann A, Muthuraman A, Jaggi AS, Singh N, Grover K, Dhawan R.(2012). Animal models of acute renal failure. Pharmacol Rep. 64(1):31-44.

[34] Sivachandran M & Hariharan P (2012). Renoprotective effect of terminalia chebula on gentamicin induced toxicity in rats. Int J Vet Sci.1 (2), 76-79.

[35] Soliman KM, Abdul-hamid M & Othman AI (2007). Effect of carnosine on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Med Sci Monit. 13(3), BR73-83.

[36] Tavafi M, Ahmadvand H & Toolabi P (2012). Inhibitory effect of olive leaf extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Iran J Kidney Dis. 6 (1), 25-32.

[37] Vaidya VS, Ferguson MA & Bonventre JV (2008). Biomarkers of acute kidney injury. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 48, 463–493.

[38] Yasmin A, Masood S, Abid H (2010). Biochemical analysis and sensory evaluation of naturally preserved sugarcane juice. Pak J Biochem Mol Biol. 43 (3), 144–145.

[39] Zhang Z, Lu B, Sheng X & Jin N (2011). Cystatin C in prediction of acute kidney injury: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 58(3), 356–365.

View Full Article: