Effect of carissa edulis (VAHL) apocynaceae stem bark on hematological parameters in ccl¬4 induced albino rats

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    Aim/Objectives: There are claims that Carissa edulis has positive effects on hematological parameters. The present study was conducted to evaluate the safety and claimed hematological effect of Carissa edulis on rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride.

    Method: Thirty six male albino rats were randomly allotted to six groups of six rats per group. The animals were treated with (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg of the stem bark extract of Carissa edulis. The extract was administered daily by gavage to the animals for 28 consecutive days. The 50%v/v Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and olive oil was gavaged twice a week. The animals of the normal control group were given 5ml/kg of distilled water while those of the CCl4 group were administered CCl4 only twice a week.

    Result: Results of the study showed that the CCl4 group caused a significant decrease in most of the hematological parameters while the extract treated groups showed a significant increase in these parameters.

    Discussion / Conclusion: This suggests that the ethanolic stem bark extract has erythropoietic, thrombopoietic and positive effect on the immune system.

     

     


     

  • Keywords


    Carissa edulis; Thrombopoietin; Erythropoietin; Hematological Parameters; CCl4 and Gavage.

  • References


      [1] Abound G & Kaplowitz N (2007). Drug Induced Liver Injury. National Library of Medicine. National Institute of Health: 30(4), 227 – 294.https://doi.org/10.2165/00002018-200730040-00001.

      [2] Bandyopadhyay U & Das D, Banerjee RK (1999). Reactive Oxygen Species. Oxidative Damage and Pathogenesis. Curriculum Science, 77, 658 – 666.

      [3] Coles C (1989). Diabetes education; Theories in practice. Practical Diabetes International 6 (5) 504.https://doi.org/10.1002/pdi.1960060504.

      [4] Comazzi S, Spagnolo V & Bonfanti U (2004). Erythrocyte changes in canine diabetes mellitus: in vitro effects of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis. Journal on comparative clinical pathology 1(2), 199-205.https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-004-0502-x.

      [5] Coppa JA, Mussart NB &Floranelli SA (2002). Physiological variations of enzymatic activities in blood of Bullfrog, Ranacates Beinashaw12 (13), 22-27.

      [6] Dawkins M (1963). The identification of epidural space. Wiley Online Library Anesthesia/Volume 18, issue 1https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1963.tb13706.x.

      [7] DeGruchy GC (1976). Clinical hematology in medical Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford Pp 33-57.

      [8] Drueke TB, Locatalli F, Clyne N, Eckardt KU & Macdaugall IC (2006). Normalization of hemoglobin level in patients with Chronic Kidney disease and Anemia. New Zealand Journal of Medicine 3(55), 2071-2084.https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa062276.

      [9] Ganong WF (2001). Review of medical physiology, Lange medical books McGraw-Hill companies’ incorporation2:500

      [10] Girish C & Pradhan SC (2008). Drug Development for liver diseases: focus on Picro-liv, ellagic acid and curcumin. Fundamental Clinical Pharmacology 22(6), 623 – 632https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-8206.2008.00618.x.

      [11] Grassman J (2005). Terpenoids as plant antioxidant Vitamhorm 72, 505 – 535https://doi.org/10.1016/S0083-6729(05)72015-X.

      [12] Heinz J (2008). Coagulation disorders Concise Manuals on Hematology and Oncology371-386.

      [13] Hutchinson J &Dalziel (1963). JM.Flora of West Africa, Vol II Crown agents for oversea government and administration, Mill-banks, London. 51 – 54.

      [14] Irvine FR (1961). Woody plants of Ghana. Oxford. University Press London Pp 616 – 18

      [15] JorumOH, Piero NM & Machocho AK (2016). Hematological Effect of Dichloromethane methanolic leaf extract of Carissa edulis (Forssk) Vahl in normal rat’s models. Journal of Hematology and Thromboembolic Diseases 4:232:doi10.4172/2329-8790.10000232.

      [16] Kakade ML, Rackis JJ, McGhee & Puski GA (1974). Determination of trypsin inhibitor activity of Soy products;- a collaborative analysis of an improved procedure. Cereal Chemistry 5(1), 376-382.

      [17] Kashinath RT (1990). Hypolypidemic effects of disulphide in rats with high lipids diet and/or ethanol PhD Theses University of Bangalore; Pp 221 – 25

      [18] Lee CY, Wilkinson BD, Siergrist SE, Wharton RP & Doe CQ (2006). Brat is Miranda cargo protein that inhibits neuroblast self renewal. Dev. Cell 10(4), 441-449.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2006.01.017.

      [19] Li J, Xia Y & Kuter DJ (1999). Interactions of thrombopoietin with the platelet complement receptor in plasma binding internalization, stability and pharmacokinetics. British Journal of Hematology106: 345https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2141.1999.01571.x.

      [20] Lorke D (1983).A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Archive of toxicology 54, 275 – 87 [Pub med].https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01234480.

      [21] Merck M (2012).Hematologic reference ranges. Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved from http:www.merkmanual.com.

      [22] Momoh, J &Damazio OA (2014).Hepatotoxicity of Household Kerosene (HHK) on liver enzyme markers and its effects on hematological and oxidative stress parameters on Wistar albino rats. Science Journal of Medicine and Clinical Trial; 1(0), 7.

      [23] Naaz F, Javed S & Abdin MZ (2007). Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Phyllantu samanusschumet Thorn on aflatoxin Bi-induced liver damage in Mice. Journal of Ethno pharmacology 11(3), 503 –9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.07.0 17.

      [24] Ogbonnia SO, Mbaka GO, Anyika EN, Ladiju O, Igbokwe HN, Emordi, JE & Nwakakwa N (2010). Evaluation of Antidiabetics and Cardiovascular Effects of Parinaricuratellifolia Seed Extract and Anthoclistavogelli Root Extract Individually and Combined on Post Prandial and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic albino Rats. British Journal of Medical Research (3), 146 – 162

      [25] Ohaeri CC &Eluwa MC (2011). Abnormal biochemical and hematological indices in trypanosomiasis as a threat to herd production US National Library of Medicine. National Institute of Health. Veterinary Parasitology 177 (3 – 4), 199 – 2002 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.02.002.

      [26] Olsson A &Aher SM (2006). Early erythropoietin for presenting red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or birth weight infants Cochrane database system 2006 1:3.https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004863.pub2.

      [27] Ovuru SS &Ekweozor IK (2004). Hematological changes associated with crude oil ingestion in experimental rabbits. African Journal of Biotechnology 3(1), 346-48.https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB2004.000-2064.

      [28] Patti M &Kulkarni RS (1993). Ovarian and hepatic biochemical response to Sumaach (a crude form of HCG in Fish, Notopteruspallas under pesticide treatment, Gobies 2(1), 255-259.

      [29] Ren W, QiaoWang Z & Zhan L (2003). Flavonoid promising anticancer agent medicinal research reviews 23, 519 – 534https://doi.org/10.1002/med.10033.

      [30] Richard AM, Matthew RP, Naïf Z &Abraham J (2008). Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders1; 2.

      [31] Saunders A, Hofmann A, Gombotz H, Theusinger OM & Spahn DR (2007). Estimating the cost of blood; past present and Future directions. Best Practical Research in Clinical Anesthesiology 2(1), 271-89.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2007.01.002.

      [32] Saxena DK, Sharma SK & Sambi SS (2011). Well comparative extraction of Cotton seed oil by n-Hexane and ethanol ARPN. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 6(1), 84 – 89

      [33] Schalm OW, Jain NC & Croll EJ (1975). Veterinary hematology (3rded) Philadelphia lea and Febigar, 498 – 512.

      [34] Sofowara A (1986). The state of medicine plant research in Nigeria. 1st Edition University Press Limited. Ife Nigeria. page 145 – 8.

      [35] Sofowora A (1993).Medicinal Plant and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2 – 47. Spectrum Books Limited Ibadan Nigeria

      [36] Tobilli JE &Brignoli R (2007). Iron (lll)-hydroxide polymaltose complex in Iron deficiency anemia/review and meta- analysis. ArzneimitleforShung5(7), 431-8.https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1296692.

      [37] Tolo FM, Rukunga GM, Muli FW, Njagi EN & Njue W (2006). Antiviral activity of the extract of a Kenyan medicinal plant Carissa edulisagainst herpes simplex virus. Journal of Ethno pharmacology 10(4), 92-9.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.053.

      [38] Trease &, Evans WC (1989). Pharmacognosy, 13th (Eds). ELBS/BailliereTindall, London: pp. 345 – 346, 535 – 536, 772 – 773.

      [39] Viyaya K, Ananthan S & Nalini R (1995). Antibacterial effects of the Aflavin, polyphenol 60 (CamellaSinensis). Euphorbia hirta on shingella Supp. A cell culture study. Journal of Ethno pharmacology, 45,115 –118.https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(95)90039-X.

      [40] Wambi C, Sanzari J, Wanxs S, Nuth M &Davis J (2008). Dietary antioxidants protect hematopoietic cells and improve animal survival after total body irradiation. Radiation research, 169, 9: 384 –6.https://doi.org/10.1667/RR1204.1.

      [41] Weber ME, Wiedicke HM, Kudrass HR, Kudrass H & Erlenkeuser H (2003).Physical Properties of 39 Sediment Cores from the Bengal Fan and Northeast Indian OceanPANGAEA2003.

      [42] Yamamoto A (2000). Reversal of Neuropathology and Motor Dysfunction in a Coordinational Model of Huntington’s disease. Pub med. US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health 101(1), 57 – 66.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80623-6.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 31289
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijpt.v9i1.31289




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.