Evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy of triclabendazole, nitroxynil and albendazole against naturally acquired fascioliasis in cattle of Bangladesh with special reference to its residual effect


  • Md. Aktaruzzaman University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh
  • Zahurin Mohamed University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Naim -Ul-Alam
  • Md. Siddiqu Islam Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh
  • Md. Matiar Rahman Howlader Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh






Comparative efficacy, fascioliasis, cattle, Sylhet.


This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of triclabendazole, nitroxynil and albendazole against fascioliasis in naturally infected cattle of government dairy farm, Sylhet, Bangladesh. The study included 50 cattle breed of which 30 were naturally infected and randomly selected 20 based on their weight and egg count. Twenty cattle of 2-3 years old irrespective of sex infested with fascioliasis were selected for this experiment and randomly divided into four equal groups (group A, B, C and D) where each group consisted of 5 cattle and cattle of group D were kept as control group. One injectable nitroxynil (10 mgkg-1 body weight, S/C) preparations (Renata Ltd. Bangladesh) and two solid triclabendazole, albendazole (12 mgkg-1, 15 mgkg-1 body weight, orally) preparations (Novartis Ltd. and Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Bangladesh) were used for positive control of fascioliasis as group A, B and C. Cattle of group D was kept as control without giving any treatment. Before trials (day 0), total egg count, blood samples and initial body weight were recorded. During the study period the fecal and blood samples were collected directly from rectum and examined on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day using McMaster fecal egg counting method. Body weight was recorded on day 28 following the treatments. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated through determination of parasitic prevalence, body weight gain/loss and hematological findings. Pre and post-treatment EPG (eggs per gram) values were recorded, and efficacies compared. The results showed that the efficacy of nitroxynil was 92.57%, followed by triclabendazole 91.55% and albendazole 84.53%, which were significant (p<0.01). The observed differences in efficacy between these three brands of anthelmintics were most likely due to variations either in quality or the administered doses. The body weight of the treated animals was increased, which were significant (p<0.01). After treatment triclabendazole, nitroxynil and albendazole, Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Hemoglobin (Hb) content and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) were increased significantly (p<0.01 and p>0.05) in cattle but Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Total Leukocyte Count (TLC) were decreased significantly (p<0.05 and p>0.01) in all treated cattle and body weight was increased significantly (p<0.01) on day 28.  The farm management practices along with results of the present study revealed the efficacy of multiple anthelmintics against fascioliasis in cattle. Additional detailed studies are required to clarify the current status of the efficacy of the anthelmintics widely used in different agro ecologies, animal species, and livestock management systems in Bangladesh.


[1] Alam MN. Mostofa M and Awal MA (1995). Comparative efficacy of some fasciolicides against bovine fascioliasis. Bangladesh Vet. J. 29:79-81.

[2] Asaduzzaman M (1998). Comparative efficacy of indigenous medicinal plant and modern anthelmintic against fascioliasis in cattle. M. Sc. (Vet. Science) Thesis, submitted to the Department of pharmacology, BAU, Mymensingh.

[3] Alam MN (1997). Trematode and nematode infections in cattle their comparative therapy with different anthelmintics. M. Sc. (Vet. Science) Thesis, submitted to the Department of Medicine, BAU, Mymensingh.

[4] Bhuiyan MA (1970). A survey of helminthes parasitizing the liver of domestic ruminants in Bangladesh. M. Sc. (Vet. Science) Thesis, submitted to the Department of parasitology, BAU, Mymensingh.

[5] BLRI (2006). Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Funded by SICT program, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.

[6] Baker JR and Muller R (1988). Journal of advance in parasitology, Vol 27:pp.244-250.

[7] Babicek K Sevcik B and Zavadil R (1993). Testing of efficacy of fasciocidal agents intra peritoneally implanted Fasciola hepatica in laboratory mice. Biopharm.3:169-178.

[8] BBS (1998). Agricultural Census 1983-84. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Planning, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

[9] Coffin DL (1995). Manual of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Third ed. Coin stock Publishing Associates. Inc. Ithaca New York, 116-157.

[10] Coles GC and Stafford KA (2001). Activity of oxyclozanide, nitroxynil, clorsulon and albendazole against adult triclabendazole resistant Fasciola hepatica. Veterinary Record. 148:23 723-724.

[11] Esch GW Curtis LA and Barger M A (2001). A perspective on the ecology of trematode communities in snails. Parasitology, 123(07):pp57-75.

[12] GOB, DLS (2007). Government of Bangladesh, Directorate of Livestock Services, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

[13] Gordong HMcL and Whitlock HV (1939). A new technique for counting nematode eggs in sheep feces. JCSIR, Australia, 12:50-52.

[14] Gupta SC Ghosh S and Singh BP (2004). Efficacy of triclabendazole against experimental Fascioliasis in cross breed cattle calves. Indian Veterinary Journal. 81:132-134.

[15] Gaasenbeek CPH, Moll L, Cornelissen JBWJ, Vellema P and Borgsteede FHM (2001). An experimental study on triclabendazole resistance of Fasciola hepatica in sheep. Veterinary Parasitology. 95(1):37-43.

[16] Gupta SC Chandra R and Yadav SC (1989). Efficacy of triclabendazole against experimental Fasciola gigantica infections in sheep, goat, buffalo and rabbit. Indian Veterinary Journal. 66:680-682.

[17] Gupta SC and Singh B P (2002). Fascioliasis in cattle and buffaloes in India. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 16:139-145.

[18] Guha C and Banerjee AK (1987). Efficacy of four anthelmintics in the treatment of fascioliasis of cattle, a comparative assessment. Indian Vet. J., 64:335-337.

[19] Hossain MA (1997). Prevalence and comparative anthelmintics against round worm and liver flukes in goat in Brahmanbaria. M. Sc. (Vet. Science) Thesis, submitted to the Department of Medicine, BAU, Mymensingh.

[20] Hanif MA Talukder MRI, Lucky NS and Huque AKMF (2003). Gastrointestinal helminthes infections in diarrhoeic calves and evaluation of some anthelmintics against them. Bangladesh Veterinarian. 20:13-18.

[21] Haq SB, Verma B and Thakur DK (1984). Efficacy of Triclabendazole against mixed infections with Fascioliasis in Cattle. Indian Vet. J., 61:509-511.

[22] Islam KS and Jabbar MA (1985). Present situation of livestock and Poultry Diseases in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh Poshushampad Unnayan – Neiti O Kowshal. BARC, Dhaka and ADC, N. Y. P., 48-128.

[23] Kamruzzaman M (2004). Comparative efficacy of triclabendazole, nitroxynil and oxyclosanide preparation against fascioliasis in cattle. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 17:79-88.

[24] Misra SC, Swain G, Panda MR and Moraparta NB (1987). Efficacy of Fasinex against fascioliasis in cattle, buffalo and goats. Indian Veterinary Journal. 64:701-704.

[25] Mohammed AEIREL, Balkemg FA, Omar H and Ibrahim MS (1985). Comparative studies on three injectable fasciocidal drugs in current issue in Egypt. Aust. Vet. Med. J. 15:143-147.

[26] Mason CS and Offer JE (2004). Fascioliasis associated with metabolic disease in dairy herd and its effects on health and productivity. Cattle Practice. 12:7-13.

[27] Mcconville M, Brennan P, McCoy M, Hernandez A, Ibarra F and Fair weather I (2006). Adult triclabendazole resistant Fasciola hepatica surface and subsurface tegumental responses to in vitro treatment with the sulfoxide metabolite of the experimental fasciolicide compound alpha. Parasitology. 133(2):195-208.

[28] Prasad KD, Pravin B and Bhati P (2001). Assesment of oxyclosanide efficacy against chronic fascioliasis in cattle and buffaloes. Journal of Research. 13(2):245-248.

[29] Ponikarov AV (1989). Efficacy of Nitronex injection in Cattle. By Uleten-Vesesoyunogo-Instituta-Gelmintologi-im,-K-1-Kryabina,52:86.

[30] Pomroy WE, Gething MA and Charlexton WAG (1988). The efficacy of Albendazole against some gastrointestinal nematodes in goats. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 36(3):105-107.

[31] Rafique A, Rana SA, Khan HA, Sohail A (2009). Prevalence of some helminthes in rodents captured from different city structures including poultry farms and human population of Faisalabad, Pakistan Vet. J., 29(3): 141-144.

[32] Richards RJ (1990). The efficacy of triclabendazole and other anthelmintics against Fasciola gigantica in controlled studies in cattle. Veterinary Record. 26(5):113-116.

[33] Richards RJ, Bowen FL, Esseawein F, Striger RF and Buscher G (2009). The efficacy of triclabendazole and other anthelmintic against Fasciola hepatica in controlled studies in cattle. The Veterinary Record. Vol. 126(9):213-216.

[34] Snedecor GW and Cochran WG (1978). Statistical Methods. Fifth Edn. The lowa State Univ. Press, Ames lowa, U. S. A.

[35] Shahiduzzaman AKM, Talukder MH and Rahman MH (1999). Ecology of parasitic stages of strongyles of ruminants in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Vet. J. 33(3-4):93-97.

[36] Sanchez AE, Ibarra VF, Perez TJ and Casass CE (1988). Evaluation of weight gain in sheep infected experimentally with Fasciola hepatica and treated with triclabendazole. Veterinary Mexico. 19(2):145-149.

[37] Stanfield DG, Lonsdala B and Schofield DM (1987). Field trials of triclabendazole against mixed age infections of Fasciola gigantica in sheep and cattle. Vet. Res. 120:459-460.

[38] Sahoo N, Mohanty TN, Patra BK, Mallick HN and Samal S (2002). Efficacy of Albendazole, closantel and triclabendazole against Fasciola infection in cattle, a field trial in rain fed area of Orissa. Indian Veterinary Journal. 79(8):774-775.

[39] Singh H, Gill JS, Ramneek and Knatra MS (1994). Comparative efficacy of anthelmintic against natural nematode infections of sheep and goats in Punjab. J. Vet. Parasitol. 8:47-50.

[40] Singh H, Gill JS, Ramneek and Knatra MS (1994). Comparative efficacy of anthelmintic against natural nematode infections of sheep and goats in Punjab. J. Vet. Parasitol. 8:47-50.

[41] Singh H, Gill JS and Bali HS (1993). Comparative field trials of five anthelmintics in cattle naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Indian J. Parasitol. 17:71-73.

[42] Soulsby EJL (1986). Helminth, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated animals, 7th edition. The ELBS and Bailiers, Tindle, Cassell, London, p-216,234,763-766.

[43] Shastri UV (1989). Efficacy of Triclabendazole and Albendazole against Fascioliasis infection in Cattle. Indian Vet. J., 66: 345-346.

[44] Tibbo M (2000). The effect of triclabendazole on acute fascioliasis in sheep in central highland of Ethiopia. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 48(2):87-92.

[45] Waruiru RM, Weda EH and Munyua WK (1994). The efficacy of triclabendazole and oxyclozanide against Fasciola gigantica in naturally infected dairy cattle in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 48(3):205-209

[46] Waller PJ (2006). Sustainable nematode parasite control strategies for ruminant livestock by grazing management and biological control. Anim. Feed Sci Techl. 126(3-4): 277-289.

[47] Widjajanti S, Estuningshih SE and Suharyanta (2001). Antibody response of cattle infected with Fasciola gigantic and the effect of triclabendazole treatment. Journal Ilium Ternak Dan Veterinary. 6(4):266-269.

[48] Zurliiski, P. 1987. Fascioliasis in pigs. Veterinaria Sbirka. 8(3):35-36.

View Full Article: