Epidemiology, presentation and integrated management of scorpion sting envenomation

  • Authors

    • Sandeep V. Binorkar Assistant ProfessorGovernment Ayurveda CollegeNandedMaharashtra
    • Gajanan R. Parlikar
  • Scorpion Sting, Integrative, Ayurveda, Mesobuthus, Anti Venom.
  • Scorpion sting is an overwhelming & an endemic public health problem in some rural part of the India. Approximately 1,400 species of the Scorpion are found worldwide. 50 species out of 700, in India, can cause serious illness. Most of the studies have focused on the clinical and epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings. However, the venom of several scorpion species can trigger Cerebral, Cardiovascular & other systemic disturbances which may lead to death. Ayurveda has explained numerous medicinal preparations in the management of Vrishchika Damsha (Scorpion sting). This Paper highlights on the presentation of Scorpion sting and its acceptable prophylaxis and therapeutic protocols according to Ayurveda & conventional medical science.

  • References

    1. [1] Abhishek Srivastava et.al., (2009) Scorpion Sting Envenomation With Pulmonary Odema & Hypotension: Treated With NTG & Inotropic Support: A Case Report - The Indian Anaesthetists’ Forum, Jodhpur

      [2] Anonymous, (2010) Guide to Insect and Non-Insect Arthropods - Entomology Study Materials – Agri Life Extention – Texas A&M University

      [3] Bawaskar H.S. (1999) Scorpion sting – Clinical Manifestation, Management & Literature, 1st Edition, Published by- Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai.

      [4] Bawaskar Himmatrao Saluba *, Pramodini Himmatrao Bawaskar, (2012) Scorpion Sting :Update, JAPI, Vol. 60:46-55

      [5] Bawaskar HS, Bawaskar PH. (1998) Indian red scorpion envenoming- Indian J Pediatr; 65: pp 383-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02761131.

      [6] Binorkar S V, CM Sreekrishnan, Asha KV. (2013) Role of Bilwadi agada in the management of Scorpion sting. Int. J. Res. Ayur. Pharm, 4(1):59-62

      [7] Binorkar S.V. et al (2013) Evaluation of ‘Dashanga Agada’ (Herbo-Mineral Compound) in the Management of Scorpion Sting Envenomation, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 1(4):126-133

      [8] Binorkar Sandeep V., (2012) Herbal Medicines Used in the Management of Scorpion Sting in Traditional Practices - A Review, Am. J. PharmTech Res. 2(3):243-256

      [9] Boyer LV et.al, (2008) Antivenom for critically ill children with neurotoxicity from scorpion stings, The New England J Med 2009; 360:2090-2098, http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0808455.

      [10] Chippaux JP, Goyffon M. (2008) Epidemiology of scorpionism: a global apprasial. Acta Trop. 107(2):71-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2008.05.021.

      [11] Mebs, (2002) “Scorpions and snakes, such as cobras, mambas and vipers made the African continent famous for venomous animals,†Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 131,

      [12] Dawn H. Gouge and Carl Olson (2006), Scorpions – The University of Arizona, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, pp 1-6

      [13] Frire-_maia L, Pinto GI and Franco I. (1974) Mechanism of cardiovascular effects produced by purified scorpion toxin in the rat. J Pharm Theap 188:207-13.

      [14] G. J. Müller, (1993) “Scorpionism in South Africa. A report of 42 serious scorpion envenomations,†South African Medical Journal, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 405–411,.

      [15] Girijadayalu Sukla (2006) - Bhel Samhita, Chaukhamba Bharati Academy, Varanasi

      [16] Gueron M, Adolph RJ, Grupp IL. (1980) Hemo-dynamic and myocardial consequences of scorpion venom. Am J Cardiol 45: pp 979-986 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149(80)90166-6.

      [17] Gupta V. (2006) Prazosin: pharmacological antidote for scorpion envenomation. J Trop Peditr 52:150-1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmi097.

      [18] Gwee MCE, Nirtthanan S, Khoo H , Gopalkrishnakone P, Kini MR, Cheah LS. (2002) Autonomic effects of same scorpion venoms and toxins. Clinical experimental pharmacology and Physiology 29:795-801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1681.2002.03726.x.

      [19] HH Sheikh Hamdan bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Michael Gillett and Conrad Gillet & others (2005)– The Emirates A Natural History - Peter Vine Publisher - Trident Press Limited - Abu Dhabi –pp174

      [20] http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/168230-overview (access on 21 Feb 2016)

      [21] http://good.all-up.com/t1-scorpion-sting-scorpion-envenomation (assessed on 1 Feb 2016)

      [22] http://scorpionforum.darkbb.com/t772-scorpion-sting-information-part-i-v (assessed on 15 Jan 2016)

      [23] http://www.azscorpion.com/india.html (access on 20 Feb 2016)

      [24] Jadavji Trikamji Acharya, (2007) Charaka Samhita, Chakrapani tika, Chikitsa sthana, Chapter 23, Reprint, Chaukhambha Prakashan, 571-582

      [25] Janice Zimmerman -(2003) Poisonings and Overdoses - ACCP Critical Care Board Review: pp 365-376

      [26] Kaviraj Kunjlal Bhishagratna, (1999) Sushruta Samhita, Kalpasthana, Chapter VIII, Vol III, C1st Edn, Choukhambha Sanskrit Series, Varanasi, 96-97

      [27] Kaviraj Kunjlal Bhishagratna, (2002) Sushruta Samhita, Sutrasthana, Chapter 1, Vol I, 2nd Edn, Choukhambha Sanskrit Series, Varanasi, 4-5

      [28] M. C. E. Gwee, S. Nirthanan, H.-E. Khoo, P. Gopalakrishnakone, R. M. Kini, and L.-S. Cheah, (2002) “Autonomic effects of some scorpion venoms and toxins,†Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, , vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 795–801 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1681.2002.03726.x.

      [29] Mahadevan S, Chudhury P, Puri PK and Srinivasan S. (1981) Scorpion envenomation and role of the lytic cocktail in its management. Ind J Peditr; 48:757-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02758544.

      [30] Murthy KRK, Zolfagharian H, Medh JD, Kudalkar JA, Yeolekar ME, Pandit SP, et al. (1988) Disseminated intravascular coagulation and disturbances in carbohydrate and fat metabolism in acute myocarditis produced by scorpion (Buthus tamulus) venom. Indian J Med Res 87:pp 318-325.

      [31] Murthy Radha Krishna K., M. Abbas zare - (2002)Scorpion Antivenom Reverses Metabolic, Electrocardiographic, And Hormonal disturbances caused by the Indian red scorpion Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis, pocock envenomation Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins, Vol.8 no.1

      [32] Murugesan S, Radhakrishnamurthy k, Noronha OPD, Samuel AM. (1999) Tc-99m scorpion venom: labeling, biodistribution and scinti imaging. J Venom Anim Toxins; 5:35- pp 46.

      [33] Patel B.G., M. Bhatt & K.C. Dave – (1989) Effects of Scorpion Venom (Buthus Tamulus) on Blood Pressure, Respiration & Electrocardiographic recordings in Anaesthetized Albino Rats, Indian Journal of Pharmacology 21: pp 38-45.

      [34] Poonking T. (1963) Myocarditis from scorpion sting. BMJ 1:374-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5327.374.

      [35] Romero N. O. -(2005) Cerebral edema associated to scorpion sting: a two-case sting report- J. Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 11:4; pp 595-600 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-91992005000400015.

      [36] S. Mahadevan - (2000) Scorpion Sting - Personal Practice - Indian Pediatrics 37: pp 504-514

      [37] Sandeep V. Binorkar et.al.,(2013) Effect of Ghrita Saindhava Dhara in the Management of Pain in Scorpion Sting – An Emergency Approach, Aryavaidyan-Quarterly Journal of Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, XXVI (3):181-184

      [38] Shivprasad Sharma, (2006) Ashtang Samgraha, Indu Tika, Uttaratantra, Chapter 43, 1st Edn, Chaukhambha Publication, Varanasi

      [39] Shyam Mathur, Sandeep Jain & others - (2010) Scorpion Sting Presenting as Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in an Elderly Male- case report - Journal of The Indian Academy of Geriatrics, Vol. 6, No. 2 pp 171-172

      [40] Suman sarkar- (2008) cerebrovascular manifestation and alterations of coagulation profile in Scorpion sting. Indian J.Crit. Care med. vol 12; 8. Pp-15-17 http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-5229.40944.

      [41] V. M. Kuttikrishna Menon, (1986) Kriya Kaumudi, Sahitya Praarthaka Co-Operatie Society Ltd., Trivendrum, Kerala

      [42] Vera L. Petricevich - (2010), Scorpion Venom and the Inflammatory Response - Mediators of Inflammation - Volume 2010; pp 1-16.

  • Downloads

  • How to Cite

    V. Binorkar, S., & R. Parlikar, G. (2016). Epidemiology, presentation and integrated management of scorpion sting envenomation. International Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 4(1), 33-39. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijpt.v4i1.5952