Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in Muscovy ducks
Keywords:Pharmacokinetics, Cefotaxime, Ducks.
The pharmacokinetic profile of cefotaxime following a single intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) injection was studied in Muscovy ducks. Cefotaxime was given at a dose rate of 25 mg/kg b.wt. for both routes. After IV injection, the plasma levels of cefotaxime estimated at 0.08 h was 70.87 Î¼g/ml, which declined gradually and cefotaxime was detected up to 10 h (0.59 Î¼g/ml). The mean values of CL, Vdss and t1/2Î² of cefotaxime in muscovy ducks were 0.22 l/kg/h, 0.51 l/kg and 1.81 h, respectively. After IM injection, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was (14.72 Î¼g/ml), time of maximal plasma concentration (tmax) was (2.3 h) and elimination half-life (t1/2el)was (1.77 h). Bioavailability following IM injection was 79.61%, and in vitro protein binding percent was 31.48%. A recommended IM dosage for cefotaxime in muscovy ducks would be 30 mg/kg b.wt., repeated at 12 h intervals will provide a therapeutic plasma concentrations exceeding the MICâ‰¤0.5 µg/ml for most susceptible pathogens in ducks.
 Amer AM, Fahim EM, Ibrahim RK (1998) Effect of aflatoxicosis on the kinetic behaviour of ceftiofur in chickens. Res Vet Sci. 65(2):115-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-5288(98)90161-8.
 Atef M, Ramadan A, Afifi NA, Youssef SAH (1990) Pharmacokinetic profile of cefotaxime in goats. Res Vet Sci. 49: 34-38.
 Bennett JV, Brodie JL, Benner EJ, Kirby WM (1966) Simplified, accurate method for antibiotic assay of clinical specimens. Appl Microbiol. 14(2) 170-177.
 Chaudhary RK, Srivastava AK, Rampal S (1999) Modification of the pharmacokinetics and dosage of cefuroxime by endotoxin-induced fever in buffalo calves. Vet Res Commun. 23(6):361-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006385624850.
 Craig AW, Suh B (1980) Protein binding and the antibacterial effects: Methods for determination of protein binding. In: V. Lorian (ed.), Antibiotics in Laboratory Medicine, (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD), 265-297.
 Dutta BP, Debnath SC, Mandal TK, Chakraborty AK (2004) Modification of pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in uranyl nitrate-induced renal damage in black bengal goats. J Vet Sci. 5: 1-3.
 Guerrini VH, English PB, Filippich LJ, Schneider J, Bourne DWA (1986) Pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in the dog. Vet Rec. 119: 81-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.119.4.81.
 Guerrini VH, Filippich LJ, English PB, Bourne DWA (1983) Pharmacokinetics of Cefotaxime in sheep. Am J Vet Res. 44: 1488-1491.
 Kalager T, Digranes A, Bakke K, Hellum KB, Bergan T, Solberg C (1982) Cefotaxime in serious infections: A clinical and pharmacokinetic study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 9: 157-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/9.2.157.
 Knudsen JD, Fuursted K, Frimodt-Moller N, Espersen F (1997) Comparison of the effect of cefepime with four cephalosporins against pneumococci with various susceptibilities to penicillin, in vitro and in mouse peritonitis model. J Antimicrob Chemother. 40: 679-686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/40.5.679.
 McElroy D, Ravis WR, Clark CH (1986) Pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in the domestic cat. Am J Vet Res. 47: 86-88.
 Neu HC (1982a) Antibacterial activity of desacetylcefotaxime alone and in combination with cefotaxime. Rev Infect Dis. 4: S374-S378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinids/4.Supplement_2.S374.
 Neu HC (1982b) the in vitro activity, human pharmacology, and clinical effectiveness of new beta-lactam antibiotics. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 22: 599-642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pa.22.040182.003123.
 Orsini JA, Moate PJ, Engiles J, Norman T, Poppenga R, Benson CE, Boston RC (2004) Cefotaxime kinetics in plasma and synovial fluid following intravenous administration in horses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 27(5): 293-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2885.2004.00596.x.
 Regamy C (1985) Pharmacokinetic of ceftriaxone and its relation to concentration in extravascular compartments, comparison with cefotaxime. Chemotherapy. 31: 85-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000238319.
 Sharma SK, Srivastava AK (2006) subcutaneous pharmacokinetics and dosage regimen of cefotaxime in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). J Vet Sci. 7(2): 119-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2006.7.2.119.
 Sharma SK, Srivastava AK, Bal MS (1995) Disposition kinetics and dosage regimen of cefotaxime in cross-bred male calves. Vet Res. 26: 168-173.
 Sharma SK, Srivastava AK, Deore MD (2004) Pharmacokinetic disposition of cefotaxime in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) following single intramuscular administration. Indian J Anim Sci. 74: 590-593.
 Xie W, Zhang X, Wang T, Du S (2013) Pharmacokinetic analysis of cefquinome in healthy chickens. Br Poult Sci. 54(1): 81-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2013.764399.
 Yuan L, Sun J, Wang R, Sun L, Zhu L, Luo X, Fang B, Liu Y (2011) Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of cefquinome in healthy ducks. Am J Vet Res. 72(1): 122-126.http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.72.1.122.