Anti-inflammatory activity of craterostigma pumilum (hochst) is associated with hyperalgesia

  • Authors

    • Mwonjoria John Kenyatta University
    • Umar Aliyu Bauchi State University
    • Juma Kevin Kenyatta University
    • Kahiga Titus Kenyatta University
    • Ngugi Piero Kenyatta University
    • Mburu David Kenyatta University
    • Wanyonyi Alphonse Kenyatta University
    • Githinji Charles University of Nairobi
    • Ngeranwa Joseph Kenyatta University
  • Craterostigma, Pumilum, Inflammation, Hyperalgesia, Flavonoids.
  • Inflammation and pain are ubiquitous signs and symptoms of a large number of ailments affecting humanity. There are equally as many methods and substances that are used as remedies for the conditions. Examples of remedies used include herbal extracts such those of genus Craterostigma among others. In Kenya, some plants from this genus are used as folklore remedy for toothache, joint and muscle pains. Interestingly, in spite of their use, there is no scientific study that has been instituted to evaluate their efficacy. The current study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effect of both dichloromethane (DCM) and aqueous extract of Craterostigma pumilum using animal models. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effect assays were carried out using formalin induced pedal edema and pain test respectively in white Wister rats. The phytochemical profile of the plant extract was carried out using standard procedures. Both DCM and aqueous extracts exhibited highly significant anti-inflammatory (p < 0.001) effects but no antinociceptive effects. However, the DCM extract showed a very significant (p < 0.001) hyperalgesia. The study renders support to folklore use of the plant for inflammation however it recommends incorporation of an analgesic remedy in the process.

  • References

    1. [1] Balick M, Duke J, Kaptchuk T, McCaleb RS, Pavek R, Pellerin C, Reed J, SwyersJP. (1995). Overview: History of herbal medicines: Alternative medicine expanding medical horizons: A Report to the National Institutes of Health on Alternative Medical Systems and Practices in the United States. Diane Publishing Company, 183-206.

      [2] Barbosa-Filho JM, Piuvezam MR, Moura MD, Silva MS, Lima KVB, da-Cunha EVL et al. (2006). Anti-inflammatory activity of alkaloids: A twenty-century review. RevistaBrasileira de Farmacognosia, 16(1): 109-139.

      [3] Bartels D &Salamini F. (2001). Desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant craterostigma plantagineum. A contribution to the study of drought tolerance at the molecular level. Plant Physiology, 127(4): 1346-1353.

      [4] Bianchi G, Gamba A, Murelli C, Salamini F, Bartels D. (1991). Novel carbohydrate metabolism in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. The Plant Journal, 1(3): 355-359.

      [5] Bussmann R W, Swartzinsky P, Worede A, Evangelista P. (2011). Plant use in Odo-Bulu and Demaro. Bale region, Ethiopia. Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine, 7(1): 1

      [6] Bussmann RW, Gilbreath GG, Solio J, Lutura M, Rutuluo R, Kunguru K et al. (2006). Plant use of the Maasai of Sekani Valley, Maasai Mara, Kenya. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2(1):1-16.

      [7] DamasJ&Liegeois JF. (1999). the inflammatory reaction induced by formalin in the rat paw. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, 359(3): 220-227.

      [8] Deacon RMJ & Gardner CR. (1984). The pull-up test in rats: a simple method for evaluating muscle relaxation. Journal of Pharmacological Methods, 11(2): 119-124.

      [9] Dubuisson D & Dennis SG. (1978). the formalin test: a quantitative study of the analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and brain stem stimulation in rats and cats. Pain, 4, 161-174.

      [10] Farsky SP, Sannomiya P, Garcia-Leme J. (1995). Secreted glucocorticoids regulate leukocyte-endothelial interactions in inflammation. A direct vital microscopic study. Journal of leukocyte biology, 57(3): 379-386.

      [11] Ferrandiz ML &Alcaraz M J. (1991). Anti-inflammatory activity and inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism by flavonoids. Agents and Actions, 32(3-4): 283-288.

      [12] Goulart AC, Correia F. A, Sousa SC, Luz JG. (2005). Study of the inflammatory process induced by injection of carrageenan or formalin in the rat temporo-mandibular joint. Brazilian oral Research, 19(2): 99-105.

      [13] Hepper FN (1990). Craterostigma, Flora Zambesiaca 8(2) 53-56.

      [14] Higgs GA, Eakins KE, Mugridge KG, Moncada S. (1980). The effects of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs on leukocyte migration in carrageenin-induced inflammation. European Journal of Pharmacology, 66(1): 81-86.

      [15] Hunskaar S & Hole K. (1987). The formalin test in mice: dissociation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain. Pain, 30(1):103-114.

      [16] Hunskaar S, Fasmer OB, Hole K. (1985). Formalin test in mice, a useful technique for evaluating mild analgesics. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 14(1): 69-76.

      [17] Kokwaro JO. (1993). Medicinal plants of East Africa. 2rd ed. East African literature bureau. Nairobi. 222-223.

      [18] McNamara CR, Mandel-Brehm J, Bautista DM, Siemens J, Deranian KL, Zhao M et al. (2007). TRPA1 mediates formalin-induced pain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(33): 13525-13530.

      [19] Norwood M, Truesdale MR, Richter A, Scott P. (2000). Photosynthetic carbohydrate metabolism in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51(343): 159-165.

      [20] Rosland JH, Tjølsen A, Mæhle B, Hole K. (1990). The formalin test in mice: effect of formalin concentration. Pain, 42(2): 235-242.

      [21] Smith G, Bertone AL, Kaeding C, Simmons E J, Apostoles, S. (1998). Anti-inflammatory effects of topically applied dimethyl sulfoxide gel on endotoxin-induced synovitis in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 59(9): 1149-1152.

      [22] Souto AL, Tavares JF, da Silva MS, Diniz MDFFM, de Athayde-Filho PF, Barbosa Filho JM. (2011). Anti-inflammatory activity of alkaloids: an update from 2000 to 2010. Molecules, 16(10): 8515-8534.

      [23] Tjølsen A, Berge OG., Hunskaar S, Rosland JH, Hole K. (1992). The formalin test: an evaluation of the method. Pain, 51(1): 5-17.

      [24] Vane J. (2000). Aspirin and other anti-inflammatory drugs. Thorax, 55(2): S3-S9.

      [25] Wolfensohn S & Lloyd M. (1998). Small laboratory animals. Handbook of laboratory animal management and Welfare, 2rd ed. Blackwell Science, London, England, 169-217.

  • Downloads

  • How to Cite

    John, M., Aliyu, U., Kevin, J., Titus, K., Piero, N., David, M., Alphonse, W., Charles, G., & Joseph, N. (2016). Anti-inflammatory activity of craterostigma pumilum (hochst) is associated with hyperalgesia. International Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 4(2), 169-173.