Anti-inflammatory potentials, membrane stabilizing and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of Clerodendrum volibule ethanolic leaf extract on carragenaan- induced inflammation in rats


  • Olarenwaju Olufunmilayo. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife,
  • OLOGE Mary Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin.
  • Oyemitan Idris Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife,
  • AKOMOLAFE Rufus Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife,
  • Akinpelu Bola Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife,
  • Apata Joseph Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife,
  • IWALEWA EZEKIEL OLUGBENGA Dept of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine University of Ibadan, Nigeria





Antiinflammatory, Clerodendrum volibule, lipoxygenase, rats, xanthine oxidase.


The folkloric use of Clerodendrum volubile P Beauv (Verbenaceae) for treatment of inflammatory conditions in the Southern part of Nigeria has been reported. The anti-inflammatory action of the ethanolic leaf extract on carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, and membrane stabilizing potential were evaluated. The extract reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema in a dose dependent manner compared to control group. C. volubile inhibited xanthine oxidase activity in a dose - dependent manner; at 0.5 mg/ml it exhibited maximum inhibitory activity of 95.48% while the standard drug, allopurinol exhibited 70 % inhibition. The extract significantly inhibited lipoxygenase activity, with highest activity at 0.4 mg/ml while Quercetin showed maximum inhibition of the enzyme at 0.1 mg/ml. The extract and Acetaminophen exhibited maximum membrane stabilizing activity of 91.85 ± 0.50% and 94.32 ± 0.32% at 2.5 mg/ml respectively. These findings provide justification for the traditional use of C. volubile in inflammatory conditions.


[1] AjayiAM, TanayenJK, EzeonwumeluJOC, DareS, OkwanachiA, AdzuB, and Ademowo OGAnti-inflammatory, Anti-nociceptive and Total polyphenolic Content of Hydroethanolic Extract of Ocimum gratissimum L.Leaves Afr J Med Med Sci. 2014; 43(Suppl 1): 215–224.

[2] Brown JH, Mackey HK and Rigglio DA.A Novel in vitro Assay for Anti-Inflammatory Agents Based on Stabilization of Erythrocytes. ExptalBiol Med. 1967; 125: 837.

[3] Crunkhon P, Meacock SER 1971: Mediators of inflammation induced in the rat paw by carrageenan. British Journal of Pharmacology 42: 392-402

[4] Fred-Jaiyesimi, A. and Adekoya, Y. (2012) Pharmacognostic Studies and Antiinflammatory Activities of Clerodendrum volubile P Beauv Leaf International Journal of Phytomedicine 4, 414-418.

[5] Ignarro LJ. Effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on the stability of rat liver lysosomes in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol. 1971; 20: 2847-60.

[6] Iwalewa, E.O., McGaw, L.J., Naidoo, V., Eloff, J.N. (2007) Inflammation: the foundation of diseases and disorders. A review of phytomedicines of South African origin used to treat pain and inflammatory conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology 6 (25): 2868-2885.

[7] Katzung BG, 1998: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 7th ed. Stanford: Connecticut: pp. 578-579.

[8] Kindt,TJ, Goldsby, RA, Osborne, BA and Kuby, J.(2004), Kuby Immunology, 6th edition. New york: W.H. Freemann and company..

[9] Konaté, K. and Souza, A. (2010a). In vitro Antioxidant, Lipoxygenase and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of fractions from Cienfuegosiadigitata Cav., Sida alba L. and Sidaacuta Burn f. (Malvaceae). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 13 (22): 1092-1098.

[10] Konaté, K., Souza, A., Thérèse, K.Y., Dibala, I.C, Barro, N., Rasolodimby, J.M. and Nacoulma, O.G. (2011). Phytochemical composition, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory potential of bioactive fractions from extracts of three medicinal plants traditionally used to treat liver diseases in Burkina Faso. International Journal of Phytomedicine 3: 406-415.

[11] Krishanu S, Krishnaraju AV, Satish AR, Mishra S, Trimurtulu G, Sarma KVS, Dey D and Raychaudhuri SP. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin® for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthrit. Res. Ther., 10, 2008, 85.

[12] Mashima, R. and Okuyama, T. The role of lipoxygenases in pathophysiology; new insights and future perspectives. Redox Biology 6 (2015) 297–310.

[13] Mohapatra, S., Kabiraj, P., Agarwal, T., Asthana, S., Annamalai, N., Arsad, H., Siddiqui, M.H., Khursheed, A., 2015. Targeting jatropha derived phytochemicals to inhibit the xanthine oxidase & cyclooxygenase-2: in silico analysis towards gout treatment. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 7, 360–363.

[14] Oliver, W. (2007) Inhibition of 5-Lipoxygenase product synthesis by natural compounds of plant origin. Planta Medica., 73: 1331-1357.

[15] Oyedapo OO, Akinpelu BA, Orefuwa SO (2004). Anti-inflammatory effect of Theobroma cacao, L. root extract. J. Trop. Med. Plants (Malaysia), 5(2): 161-166.

[16] Pacher, P., Nivorozhkin A. and Szabo, C. 2006. Therapeutic effect of xanthine oxidase inhibitors: Renaissance half a century after the discovery of allopurinol. Pharmacol. Rev., 58: 87-114.

[17] Sadique J, Al-Rqobah NA, Bughaith MF, El-Gindy AR (1989). The bioactivity of certain medicinal plants on the stabilization of RBC membrane system. Fitoterapia LX, 525-532.

[18] Sharma, J. N. and Mohammed, L.A. The role of leukotrienes in the pathophysiology of inflammatory disorders: Is there a case for revisiting leukotrienes as therapeutic targets? InflammoPharmacology 2006, 14(1-2): 10–16.

[19] Vinegar R, Screiber W, Hugo R, 1969: Biphasic development of carrageenan oedema in rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experiimental Therapeutics 166: 96-103.

[20] Winter, CA., Risley, EA and Nuss, CW., (1962) Carrageenan – induced oedema in the hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti – inflammatory drugs. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 111:544–547.

View Full Article: