Mineral elements in borehole water from Northern and Western geo-political zones of Nasarawa state, Nigeria

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    Mineral element contents in potable water at high concentrations may affect its quality. Concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ were determined in water from some boreholes in some parts of Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Levels of Na+ and K+ were determined using flame photometry, while Ca2+ and Mg2+ were quantified with the aid of atomic absorption spectrometry method. Concentrations of Ca2+ (10 – 42 mg/L) and Mg2+ (0.03 – 1.63 mg/L) were relatively low in the water samples. Nasarawa Toto (NTT) recorded the highest levels of mineral elements (0.26 – 10.61 mg/L). Mean concentrations of Na+ (7.59 – 11.08 mg/L) and Mg2+ (0.13 – 0.56 mg/L) were highest and lowest respectively. The levels of mineral elements according to studied areas varied in the order of NTT > NEG (Nasarawa Eggon) > KRV (Karu) > AKW (Akwanga) > KEF (Keffi) > GRU (Garaku). The ratios of Na/K for borehole water at Wayo (3.35) and Wamba Kurmi (3.55) at Wamba (WAM) areas were the closest to the optimal ratio of 3: 1 for the control of cardiovascular diseases, while Ca/Mg ratios were above the optimal ratio of 2:1. Total hardness levels (10 – 48 mgCaCO3/L) for water from the boreholes were < 60 mg/L, therefore, classified as being soft in nature. Mineral element concentrations in water from the boreholes were within the WHO acceptable limits for drinking water.

  • Keywords

    Water; Boreholes; Mineral Elements; Element Ratios; Political Zones.

  • References

      [1] Adogo LY, Ajji MA, Anyanwu NCJ, & Ajide B (2016), Bacteriological and physico-chemical analysis of borehole water in Auta Balefi Community, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. British Microbiol. Res. J. 11(4): 1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/BMRJ/2016/22360.

      [2] Obi CN, Onyegbulam AL, Ejukonemu F, & Ubogu M (2016), Microbiological and physico-chemical analyses of borehole water samples from private schools in Umuahia Metropolis, Abia State, Nigeria. British Microbiol. Res. J. 12(1): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/bmrj/2016/20136.

      [3] Roba C, Roșu C, Piștea I, Ozunu A, & Mitrofan H (2015), groundwater quality in a rural area from Buzău county, Romania. Sci. Papers Series Manag. Econ. Engin. Agricul. Rural Develop. 15(2): 305-310.

      [4] Palamuleni L, & Akoth M (2015), Physico-chemical and microbial analysis of selected borehole water in Mahikeng, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 12: 8619 - 8630. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120808619.

      [5] Akpor OB, & Muchie M (2011), Challenges in meeting the MDGs: The Nigerian drinking water supply and distribution sector. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 4: 480 - 489. https://doi.org/10.3923/jest.2011.480.489.

      [6] Tukura BW, Ibrahim EG, Onche EU, & Ibrahim MAG (2013), Preliminary assessment of physicochemical properties of borehole water in the vicinity of public health facilities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. IOSR J. Appl. Chem. 5(6): 55 - 63. https://doi.org/10.9790/5736-0565563.

      [7] Miner, CA; Dakhin, AP; Zoakah, AI; Zaman, M, & Bimba J (2016), Physical and microbiological quality of drinking water sources in Gwafan Community, Plateau State. Nigeria Pyrex Journal of Research in Environmental Studies, 3(1):1-6.

      [8] Seth ON, Tagbor TA, & Bernard O (2014), Assessment of chemical quality of groundwater over some rock types in Ashanti region, Ghana. Amer. J. Sci. Industrial. Res. 5: 1 - 6.

      [9] Stephen TO, & Kennedy KA (2013), Bacteriological profile and physico-chemical quality of ground water: A case study of bore hole water sources in a rural Ghanaian community. Int. J. Current Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 2(8): 21- 40

      [10] Skorbiłowicz M (2010), Concentrations of macroelements, zinc and iron ions in water of the Uppe Narew Basin, NE Poland. Polish J. Environ. Studies, 19(2): 397 - 405.

      [11] Donato F, Monarca S, Premi S, & Gelatti U (2003), Drinking water hardness and chronic degenerative diseases. Part III. Tumors, urolithiasis, fetal malformations, deterioration of the cognitive function in the aged and atopic eczema. (In Italian.) Ann Ig, 15, 57-70.

      [12] Sauvant MP, & Pepin D (2002), Drinking water and cardiovascular disease. Food Chem. Toxicol. 40: 1311-1325. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00081-9.

      [13] Hopps HC, & Feder G L (1986). Chemical qualities of water that contribute to human health in a positive way. Sci. Total Environ. 54: 207-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(86)90266-4.

      [14] APHA (1998), Standard Methods for Examination of water and wastewater. 19th ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA.

      [15] Nicoleta DV, & Vieru NP (2010), Levels of magnesium, calcium and other inorganic compounds in water of the wells in rural areas of Botoşani country. Present Environment & Sustainable Development, NR. 4, 139 – 406.

      [16] Satyavani CH, Venkateswararao B, & Machi PVSR (2013), Physicochemical and microbial analysis of ground water near municipal dump site for quality evaluation. Int. J. Bioassays, 1139 -1144.

      [17] WHO (2006), International Standards for Drinking Water, 3rd Edition Geneva, 346-385

      [18] WHO (2011), Guidelines for drinking water quality. 4th ed. 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.

      [19] Nigerian Industrial standard (NIS) (2007). Nigerian standard for drinking water quality. ICS 13.060.20.




Article ID: 6913
DOI: 10.14419/ijsw.v5i1.6913

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.