Climate change, food security and environmental securi-ty : A conflict inclination assessment of Karamoja region of Uganda

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    The study investigates the consequences of climate change on food security and environmental security in the Karamoja region of Uganda. It relates climate change to the conflict, insecurity and crises that have been witnessed in the region in the past years.

    It examines the implications of the change in the grazing pattern of the pastoralists and herdsmen in the time of recurrent drought and dry spells in Karamoja on the security of the region and other communities in Uganda and beyond. It relates the interplay of climate change, environmental security and food security to human security in Karamoja region.

    It also through focus group discussion (FGD) conducted in Kaabong District of the Karamoja region, identifies the presumed impacts of climate change on the environment and the people alongside its socio-economic implications. In the end, the study suggests proactive environmental security programmes in the Karamoja region which are expected to encourage sustainable mitigation and adaptation strategies in its communities, which will encourage its regional peace, security and stability.

  • Keywords

    Climate Change; Environmental Security; Food Security; Karamoja; and Conflict.

  • References

      [1] C. Raleigh and H. Urdal. Climate Change, Demography, Environmental Degradation, and Armed Conflict. Environment and Security Program, 2009. Available online:

      [2] FAO Work on Climate Change. United Nations Conference 2016. Food Agriculture and Organization of the United Nations, 2016. Available online:

      [3] B. Daley. Resource scarcity and environment: Review of evidence and research gap analysis. Evidence on Demand, UK (2013) 26 pp.

      [4] G. Baechler. Why Environmental Transformation Causes Violence: A synthesis. “Environmental Change and Security Project Report”. Washington DC: The Woodrow Wilson Center Issue 4, Spring 1998, 24-44. Available online:

      [5] N. Tschirgi. The Security-Development Nexus: From Rhetoric to Complex Causal Dynamics in the Swiss Yearbook of Development Policy Vol2/06 (Fall 2006).

      [6] R. L. Sexton. Exploring Economics. Seventh Edition. South-Western. Cengage Learning, 2016 (Published January, 2015).

      [7] D. Aguirre. The Human Right to Development in a Globalized World. Routledge, 2008.

      [8] O.O. Akiyode. Implications of Urbanization on Environmental Security in Developing Economy Countries: A Case Study of Nigeria.Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. 15(3) 2013. Available online:

      [9] J. T. Mathews. Redefining Security. Foreign Affairs, spring 1989, 68, 2, ABI/INFORM Global, 1989 162-177.Available online:

      [10] Kreimer A., Arnold M. & Carlin A. 2003. “Building Safer Cities. The future of Disaster Risk”. The World Bank Disaster Project Management facility. Washington DC. Available online:

      [11] A. Steiner 2006. Environmental Security”. G8 Summit issues and instruments. Available online:

      [12] R. Pachauri and R.E. Benedick. “Environmental Security. A developing Country Perspective”. Meeting report of Wilson Center, Environmental Change and Security Project, Current Events, OCT 17, 2000 Available online:

      [13] M. Soroos. Global Change, Environmental Security, and the Prisoner’s Dilemma. Journal of Peace Research 1994 31(3):317-332. Available online:

      [14] UNEP. United Nations Environmental Development Programme2009).

      [15] O. Fagboun. Environmental Degradation and Nigeria’s National Security: Making Connections. Law and Security in Nigeria. Nigeria Institute of Advance Legal Studies, 2011 358-383. Available online:

      [16] T. F. Homer-Dixon, ‘Across the Threshold: Empirical Evidence on Environmental Scarcities as Causes of Violent Conflict,'International Security, 1994, 19(1): 5–40.

      [17] T. F. Homer-Dixon. Environment, Scarcity and Violence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, 1999.

      [18] Canada Free Press. Ban Ki-moon calls on new generation to take better care of Planet Earth than his own, 2007. Available online:

      [19] N.P. Gleditsch and H. Urdal. Ecoviolence? Links between Population Growth, Environmental Scarcity and Violent Conflict in Thomas Homer-Dixon Work. Journal of International Affairs. Fall 2002; 56, 1/.

      [20] K. Sanjeev and A.Saleem, Environment and Security, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 2006 31:395-41Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 2006. 31:14.1–14.17 doi: 10.1146/ online:

      [21] E. Page. What’s the Point of Environmental Security? Paper for the SGIR 7th Pan-European International Relations Conference Stockholm, 9-11 September 2010 Panel SA-61 Saturday 10 September, 2010. Available online:

      [22] P. Le Billion. The political ecology of war: natural resources and armed conflicts. Political Geography, 2001 20 561–584.

      [23] USAID. Climate Risk Screening for Food Security, Karamoja Region, Uganda. USAID, 2017.Available online:

      [24] ANPPCAN-Uganda. Annual Situation Reports of Karamojong Children and Families’ Street Migration in Uganda. African Network for the Prevention and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect, 2015. Available online: content/uploads/situation_analysis/sit_analysis_2015.pdf.

      [25] Food Agriculture Organization (FAO). Food Security and Agricultural Livelihoods Cluster: Plan Action for Northern Uganda 2008-2009. Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF). FAO, 2009. Available online:

      [26] O. Rojas, A. Vrieling and F. Rembold. Assessing drought probability for agricultural areas in Africa with coarse resolution remote sensing imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment 115 Elsevier, 2011 343–352.

      [27] FEW NET. Uganda Food Security Outlook October 2016 to May 2017. Famine Early Warning System Network, 2017. Available online:

      [28] WFP. Food Security & Nutrition Assessment Karamoja, Uganda. Analysis conducted by the Analysis, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, World Food Programme (WFP), Uganda. 2016. Available online:

      [29] IPC. Report of the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification Analysis for Karamoja. Integrated Food Security Phase Classification. Uganda IPC Technical Working Group, 2015.Available online:

      [30] New Vision. No Food, no School Pupils in Karamoja. New Vision Daily Newspaper, August 23, 2017, 2007 16.

      [31] T. Neethling. The Security-Development Nexus and the Imperative of Peacebuilding with special reference to the African Context”, African Journal on conflict Resolution, 2005 33-60. Available online:

      [32] ICISS. The Responsibility to Protect. Report of the International Commission on International and State Sovereignty, 2001.Available online:




Article ID: 8458
DOI: 10.14419/ijsw.v5i2.8458

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.