A cluster based approach for wormhole attack detection in wireless sensor networks
Keywords:Wireless Sensor Network, Wormhole Attack, Clustering, Attack Detection.
Due to the need of cooperation among nodes to relay packets, wireless sensor networks are very vulnerable to attacks in all layers of the network. One of these severe attacks is the wormhole attack. Detection of wormhole attack is hard, because it can be easily implemented by attacker without having knowledge of nodes in the network or it can be compromised by any legal node in the network. To date, the most of proposed protocols to defend against wormhole attacks are made by adopting synchronized clocks, directional antennas or strong assumptions in order to detect wormhole attacks.
A method based on clustering is presented in this paper to detect this type of attacks. This method is implemented in static and mobile networks. The superiority of our protocol is that during the attack prevention or attack detection, the malicious nodes are detected and requires no additional hardware or complex calculations. Simulation results are perused with the NS-2 simulator and the protocol has been evaluated in terms of packet drop ratio, throughput, delay and energy consumption compared to a network without or under attack. Simulation results show that our protocol is practical and effective in improving resilience against wormhole attacks.
 S. Hadim and S.N. Mohamed, "Middleware challenges and approaches for wireless sensor networks", IEEE Distributed Systems, Vol. 7, No. 3, (2006) pp. 1âˆ’23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MDSO.2006.19.
 H. Mohammadi, E.N. Oskoee, M. Afsharchi, N. Yazdani and M. Sahimi, "A percolation model of mobile ad-hoc networks", International Journal of Modern Physics C (IJMPC), Vol. 20, No. 12, (2009), pp. 1871âˆ’902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0129183109014795.
 M. Meghdadi, S. Ozdemir and I. Guler, "A survey of wormhole-based attacks and their countermeasures in wireless sensor networks", IETE Technical Review, - tr.ietejournals.org, Vol. 28, No. 2, (2011), pp. 89-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0256-4602.78089.
 Y-C Hu and A. Perrig, "A survey of secure wireless ad hoc routing", IEEE Security and Privacy", Vol. 2, No. 3, (2004,) pp. 28â€“39.
 S. Qazi, R. Raad, Y. Mu and W. Susilo, "Securing DSR against wormhole attacks in multirate ad hoc networks", Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Vol. 36, No. 2, (2013), pp. 582â€“592. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2012.12.019.
 F. Shi, W. Liu, D. Jin and J. Song, "A countermeasure against wormhole attacks in MANETs using analytical hierarchy process methodology", Electron Commer Res, Vol. 13, No 3, (2013), pp. 329-345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10660-013-9122-3.
 C. Karlof and D. Wagner, "Secure routing in wireless sensor networks: attacks and countermeasures", in the AdHoc Networks, (2003), pp. 299-302.
 T. Giannetsos and T. Dimitriou, "LDAC: A localized and decentralized algorithm for efficiently countering wormholes in mobile wireless networks", Journal of Computer and System Sciences, Vol. 80, No. 3, (2013), pp. 618-643. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcss.2013.06.015.
 T. Bin, L. Qi, Y. Yi-xian, L. Dong and X. Yang, "A ranging based scheme for detecting the wormhole attack in wireless sensor networks", The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, Vol. 19, No. 1, (2012), pp. 6â€“10.