On convergence and error analysis of the parametric iteration method
 Abstract
 Keywords
 References
 HTML

Abstract
Parametric iteration method falls under the category of the analytic approximate methods for solving various kinds of nonlinear differential equations. Its convergence only for some special problems has been proved. However in this paper, an analysis of error is presented, then due to it, the convergence of method for general problems is proved. To assess the performance of the claimed error bound and also the convergence of the method, numerical experiments are presented performed in MATLAB 2012b.

Keywords
He’s Variational Iteration Method; Parametric Iteration Method; Convergence; Error Bound.

References
[1] A. Ghorbani, “Toward a New Analytical Method for Solving Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations”, Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engrg. Vol.197, (2008), pp: 41734179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2008.04.015.
[2] J. H. He, “Variational iteration method – a kind of non–linear analytical technique: some examples”, Int. J. Non–Linear Mech. Vol.34, (1999), pp: 699708. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S00207462(98)000481.
[3] S. Yang, A. Xiao, H. Sua, “Convergence of the variational iteration method for solving multiorder fractional differential equations”, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, Vol.60, (2010), pp: 2871–2879. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.camwa.2010.09.044.
[4] S. Yang, A. Xiao, “convergence of variational iteration method for solving multidelay differential equations”, computers & mathematics with applications, Vol.61, No.8, (2011), pp: 21482151.
[5] E. Yusufoğlu, “Two convergence theorems of variational iteration method for ordinary differential equations”, Appl. Math. Lett. (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aml.2011.02.005.
[6] D. Khojasteh,”convergence of variational iteration method for solving linear systems of ODE’s with constant coefficients”, computers & mathematics with applications, Vol.56, No.8,(2008),pp: 20272033.
[7] Z. M. Odibat, “A study on the convergence of variational iteration method,” Mathematical and Computer Modelling Vol.51, (2010), pp: 1181_1192.
[8] J. SaberiNadjafi, A. Ghorbani, “Piecewisetruncated parametric iteration method: a promising analytical method for solving Abel differential equations", Z. Naturforsch. Vol.65a, (2010), pp: 529539.
[9] A. Ghorbani and J. SaberiNadjafi, “A PiecewiseSpectral Parametric Iteration Method for Solving the Nonlinear Chaotic Genesio System”, Mathematical and Computer Modeling, Vol.54, (2011), pp: 131139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcm.2011.01.044.
[10] A. Ghorbani, M. Gachpazan, J. SaberiNadjafi, “A modified parametric iteration method for solving nonlinear second order BVPs”, Comput. Appl. Math. Vol.30, No.3, (2011), pp: 499515. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S180703022011000300002.
[11] A. S. Alavi, A. Heydari, “Parametric Iteration Method for Solving Linear Optimal Control Problems”, Applied Mathematics, Vol.3, (2012), pp: 10591064. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/am.2012.39155.
C. K. Chui and G. Chen, “Linear Systems and Optimal Control”, SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, (1989), pp:7680 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9783642613128.


The Format of the IJOPCM, first submission On convergence and error analysis of the
parametric iteration method
S. A. Saeed Alavi ^{1}*, Aghileh Heydari ^{1}, Farhad Khellat ^{2}
^{1 }Department of Mathematics, Payame Noor University, Tehran, I.R of Iran
^{2 }Department of Mathematic, Faculty of Mathematical sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, EvinTehran, Iran
*Corresponding author Email: alavi601@yahoo.com
Copyright © 2015 S. A. Saeed Alavi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Parametric iteration method falls under the category of the analytic approximate methods for solving various kinds of nonlinear differential equations. Its convergence only for some special problems has been proved. However in this paper, an analysis of error is presented, then due to it, the convergence of method for general problems is proved. To assess the performance of the claimed error bound and also the convergence of the method, numerical experiments are presented performed in MATLAB 2012b.
Keywords: He’s Variational Iteration Method; Parametric Iteration Method; Convergence; Error Bound.
1. Introduction
Parametric iteration method (PIM) is an analytic approximate method for solving linear and nonlinear problems proposed in [1]. At beginning it was proposed for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations by modifying He’s variational iteration method (VIM) [2]. The PIM enjoys some augmented factors which made it more completed than the VIM. In fact by adjusting these factors one can establish more accurate approximations in comparison with the VIM.
During recent decade, many researchers have been worked on the VIM for solving various kinds of problems which mentioning them is out of the scope of this paper. Besides, some authors have been centered on the convergence of the VIM for some specific problems, like for multiorder fractional DE’s [3], multidelay DE’s [4], ODE’s [5], systems of ODE’s [6] and etc. Herein, the work of Odibat [7] is more interesting and different because of its generality. In fact, he concluded the convergence of the VIM by introducing a semicontraction operator and completed the proof like the proof of the Banach’s fixed point theorem.
On the other hand, the PIM was utilized for solving various kind of differential equations like Abel equation [8], nonlinear chaotic Genesio system [9], boundary value problems [10], linear optimal control problems [11] and etc. Convergence theorem for some particular cases was discussed in some of these literature (e.g. [8,9]), but what is still missing is a proof of the convergence of the PIM for a general differential equation. Also, from the both theoretical and practical viewpoint, another necessary talk is a complete discussion about the error bound of the approximations. Therefore, the goal of this article is to establish an error term and then presenting a general proof of the convergence of the PIM.
2. Parametric iteration method (PIM)
To explain the basic idea of the PIM considers the following differential equation:
(1)
Where is a nonlinear operator, denotes the time, and is an unknown variable. First consider (1) as below:
(2)
Where and denote linear and nonlinear differential operator of the unknown respectively, and is the source term. We then construct a family of iterative formulas as:
(3)
where . In this formula and denote the socalled auxiliary parameter and auxiliary function respectively. In this work we take Accordingly, the successive approximations will be readily obtained by choosing the zeroth component. (For more details about PIM see [1]).
3. Error analysis and convergence
Consider the following nonlinear problem
(4)
Where and are defined as:
(5)
Where and are continuous real functions on . In we use the infinity norm i.e. for vector we have and for everywe use the maximum norm as. Also the norm of vector functions like is:
(6)
In order to use the PIM, we rewrite (4) as
(7)
Where is an auxiliary linear operator and is the nonlinear operator. Then the constructed iteration formula by PIM will be defined by:
(8)
Taking and choosing the initial approximation in the above sequence, clearly we can say that . So the following lemma will be obtained.
Lemma 3.1: For every and for every
(9)
Now the iteration formula (8) can be written as
(10)
Let’s denote n^{th} approximation by and then the convergence of is due to the norm
(11)
Before presenting the main theorem, we restate the Lipschitz condition for the vector function . Suppose that for every the component of function , there exist a positive real constant such that for every and for every and the following condition satisfies:
(12)
In this situation, letting we can say that satisfies a Lipschitz condition with respect to the first argument with the Lipschitz constant L, i.e.
(13)
Theorem 3.2: Assume that is continuous on where and satisfies a Lipschitz condition on with respect to the first argument with the Lipschitz constant L. Also suppose that is bounded onto a positive real number. Then for two arbitrary successive approximations we have
(14)
Proof: If we denote the approximate solution obtained by the first iteration with and , according to (10) and noticing that where and we can write
(15)
Now, let in (10), using the notation, we have
We rearrange the final statement as bellow
(16)
And similarly
(17)
In summary, this argument will lead to the following general form
(18)
The maximum of left hand side on index satisfies (18) too, due to the fact that the right hand side of (18) is independent from index . So, due to the defined norm (6), taking maximum of both side of (18) on all , we have:
(19)
This completes the proof. ■
Now we want to prove that if we choose such that then the right hand side of (14) vanishes when n tends to infinity. First we prove an auxiliary lemma.
Lemma 3.3: Assume that then for every where we have
(20)
Proof: For a fixed we have . So
(21)
Also for every real number and we know that. Therefore noticing to the assumption and taking will complete the proof. ■
Theorem 3.4: Due to the last assumption we have
(22)
Proof: Let and. Therefore the sum in (22) can be written as
(23)
Or
(24)
Noticing to the expansion of the exponential function and for all, the series is absolutely convergent and we name its sum. Clearly, the limit of is zero. Also, by lemma 3.3 we know that. So, for every given there exist a such that for every we have. In this case we can write
(25)
In the last inequality absolutely convergence of is used. On the other hand, as tends to infinity. So if we keep fixed and let then we have
(26)
Since the was arbitrary, the proof is complete. ■
Theorem 3.2 and 3.4 indicate that for sufficiently large, two successive terms of the sequence for every arbitrary satisfy the following relation
(27)
Using this, one can easily show that is a Cauchy sequence in. Therefor it is convergent in the complete space. So we have:
Corollary 3.5: Due to the last assumptions, the sequence (10) constructed by the PIM is convergent.
Corollary 3.6: The valid region of the convergencecontrol parameter is .
4. Numerical experiments
To demonstrate the efficiency of the error bound defined by (14) we consider the following two dimensional test problems.
(28)
Where the time domain is and the exact solutions from [12] are:
(29)
(30)
In view of (4) and (5) we have:
(31)
is linear and obviously, it satisfies a Lipschitz condition by Lipschitz constant . Choosing, theis bounded by and using the notation for the error bound described in (14) we have:
(32)
Furthermore the norm of direct difference of two successive approximations and appeared in the left hand side of (14) is denoted by
(33)
Then for everyand for all the numerical results must confirm the relation to ensure that the theoretical result of the Theorem 3.2 is reliable.
Also in order to discuss the convergence of the PIM claimed in the Corollary 3.5, we denote the absolute error by and define it by
(34)
In Fig.1, we plot , and obtained by the PIM with and . Other different values of and is discussed in Fig.2 and Table 1.
Analysis of the Fig.1:
Error bound: As could be seen from the plot of , the estimated error bound is really an upper bound for which confirms the inequality (14). This is true for every iteration as zoomed out part shows. Plot of also shows that by increasing the error bound vanishes which is a confirmation of theorem 3.4.
Cauchy sequence: The plot of shows that when grows. This means that for every and for sufficiently large, which confirms (27). The latter can be used to conclude the sequence is a Cauchy sequence.
Convergence: The plot of shows that for sufficiently large , , and this is a confirmation of convergence of the sequence constructed by the PIM.
In Fig.2, we plot and for the solutions of the PIM by various and. As could be seen the error bound confirms what is claimed in theorem 3.2 and 3.4.
Although Fig.1 and Fig.2 provide us good information of error bound, but what is doesn’t show is a specified data for the convergence rate. So to study of the convergence rate we report the final values of and for and in Table 1.
Table 1: Test of Error Bound for Various And
0.001
Table 1 shows that for the convergence is excellent but for we need much more iterations to conclude the convergence. For, although seems to be appropriate for vanishing but bigness of in the same formula (32) makes very big. On the other hand, for, similarly but is not very big in opposite of the case, consequently the convergence is faster. From this viewpoint, seems to be the best choice since, however there exist many counterexamples in nonlinear problems showing that some values other than can give better approximations. Such an argument leads to a known problem that is finding an optimal value of accelerating parameter which in general is an open problem in this field. By the results of this paper a proposal is minimizing the error term as a function of the parameter as a variable which is left to the further works.
5. Conclusion
In this paper, a convergence analysis of the PIM is presented. This is performed by establishing a novel error bound and showing this error bound tends to zero. Also an interesting result has been concluded for the auxiliary parameter h. Although finding optimal h in general is an open problem, but we hope that the results of this paper are a promising tools for researchers. Our proposal is to find optimal h by minimizing the presented error term as a function of, which is left to the further works.
References
[1] A. Ghorbani, “Toward a New Analytical Method for Solving Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations”, Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engrg. Vol.197, (2008), pp: 41734179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2008.04.015.
[2] J. H. He, “Variational iteration method – a kind of non–linear analytical technique: some examples”, Int. J. Non–Linear Mech. Vol.34, (1999), pp: 699708. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S00207462(98)000481.
[3] S. Yang, A. Xiao, H. Sua, “Convergence of the variational iteration method for solving multiorder fractional differential equations”, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, Vol.60, (2010), pp: 2871–2879. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.camwa.2010.09.044.
[4] S. Yang, A. Xiao, “convergence of variational iteration method for solving multidelay differential equations”, computers & mathematics with applications, Vol.61, No.8, (2011), pp: 21482151.
[5] E. Yusufoğlu, “Two convergence theorems of variational iteration method for ordinary differential equations”, Appl. Math. Lett. (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aml.2011.02.005.
[6] D. Khojasteh,”convergence of variational iteration method for solving linear systems of ODE’s with constant coefficients”, computers & mathematics with applications, Vol.56, No.8,(2008),pp: 20272033.
[7] Z. M. Odibat, “A study on the convergence of variational iteration method,” Mathematical and Computer Modelling Vol.51, (2010), pp: 1181_1192.
[8] J. SaberiNadjafi, A. Ghorbani, “Piecewisetruncated parametric iteration method: a promising analytical method for solving Abel differential equations", Z. Naturforsch. Vol.65a, (2010), pp: 529539.
[9] A. Ghorbani and J. SaberiNadjafi, “A PiecewiseSpectral Parametric Iteration Method for Solving the Nonlinear Chaotic Genesio System”, Mathematical and Computer Modeling, Vol.54, (2011), pp: 131139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcm.2011.01.044.
[10] A. Ghorbani, M. Gachpazan, J. SaberiNadjafi, “A modified parametric iteration method for solving nonlinear second order BVPs”, Comput. Appl. Math. Vol.30, No.3, (2011), pp: 499515. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S180703022011000300002.
[11] A. S. Alavi, A. Heydari, “Parametric Iteration Method for Solving Linear Optimal Control Problems”, Applied Mathematics, Vol.3, (2012), pp: 10591064. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/am.2012.39155.
[12] C. K. Chui and G. Chen, “Linear Systems and Optimal Control”, SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, (1989), pp:7680 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9783642613128.
View 
Download  HTML 
Article ID: 3985 
