Causes and effects of water pollution in the Soniwein Community, Central Monrovia, Liberia (March to May 2017)


  • Sampson K. P. CHEA University of Liberia
  • DEAN Andrew P. University of Liberia





Microbiological, Chemical, Pollution, Contamination, and Water-Borne


Water pollution can be defined in many ways. Usually, it means one or more substances have built up in water to such an extent that they cause problems for animals or people. The objectives of this study were to determine the causes and effects of Water pollution in Soniwein Community and to determine whether the cases of water borne diseases can be attributed to unsafe and contaminated water in Soniwein Community as well as to come up with interventional strategies by which water pollution can be mitigated in the Soniwein Community. This research employed the cross sectional survey design. Field interviews were done by close-ended questionnaires, including health workers at Soniwein Community Clinic. Water samples were randomly collected and microbiological and chemical tests were conducted at the National Standards Lab to determined contamination by microbes and physical quality of the water respectively Samples were randomly collected from the Soniwein community and tested The microbiological test reveals a rejection in total viable count for Well 1, [2], [3] & [4], N/A in Yeasts & Mold, for Well 1, 2, 3, 4, detection of E. Coli in Well 1, 2, 3 & 4. The results of the chemical test reveals the iron content of Well [1-3] to be in acceptable range while that of well 4 was out of acceptable range; the chloride content of Well [1-4] were all in acceptable range; the pH values for Well 1, 2, 3 & 4 were all in normal rang; Well 1, 2, & 3 were all in acceptable turbidity range while that of well 4 showed a deviant. Water pollution in the Soniwein Community is caused by several factors such poor sanitation, improper disposal of domestic wastes and the effects lead to water- borne diseases such as Typhoid, Diarrhea and dysentery, and infants between the ages of 0-2 years are mostly affected.


[1] Howarth, S. et al (2007). “Diffuse agricultural pollution: Impacts and options for mitigationâ€. Final Report, Department for International Development Knowledge and Research Services Contract R8337.

[2] Wagner T.P. (1993) “In our backyard: A guide to understanding pollution and its effects†Travis P. Wagner. John Wiley & Sons, 1993. p.26

[3] Biswas, A. K. & Seetharam, K. E. (2008). “Achieving water security for Asiaâ€, International Journal of Water Resources Development, Vol. 24, No.1, pp. 145–176.

[4] Aqua stat report (2015) Renewable Water Resources Assessment, Methodology Review

[5] WHO (2008). Global health observatory data repository, World Health Organization. Retrieved December 22, 2016, from

[6] WHO (2013). Diarrheal disease, Fact sheet Number 330.

[7] Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (2000), State of the Environment in Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok: United Nations ESCAP.

[8] Evans, A. E. V., Hanjra, M. A., Jiang, Y., Qadir, & Drechsel, P. (2012). “Water quality: Assessment of the current situation in Asiaâ€, International journal of water resources development Vol. 28, No.2, pp. 195-216.

[9] Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (2011). Statistical yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2011 (Bangkok: United Nations ESCAP).

[10] Robertson Larry W. et al (2015). "Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites worldwide" in PCBs: Recent advances in environmental toxicology and health effects.

[11] Mishima, A. (1982). The human cost of Minamata disease: Kosei Pub. Our World (1990, April). Estimates in different publications quote 4-5 million ton, New York magazine, p.28.

[12] Central Pollution Control Board [CPCB] (2010). Status of water quality in India: Monitoring of Indian aquatic resources series: MINARS 2009-10 (Ministry of Environment and forests, Government of India).

[13] Liberia Institute of Statistics and Geo-information Services, LISGIS, 2011 Census Report.

[14] FAO, A. (2011). FAO’s information system on water and agriculture: Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. Retrieved December 22, 2016, from http//

[15] Huttly, S. R. 2009. The impact of inadequate sanitary conditions on health in developing countries, International journal of water resources development Vol. 32, No.2, pp. 192-210.

[16] Radha Krishnan, R.; Dharmaraj, K.; Ranjitha Kumari, B. D. A comparative study on the physicochemical and bacterial analysis of drinking, borewell and sewage water in the three different places of Sivakasi. Journal of Environmental biology, v. 28, n. 1, p. 105-108, 2007.

[17] Rajurkar, N. S.; Nonggbri, B.; & Patwardhan, A. M. Physico-chemical and microbial analysis of Umian (Brapani) lake water. Indian Journal of Environmental Proceedings, v. 23, n. 6, p. 633- 639, 2003.

[18] Africa’s water Quality, a chemical Science Perspective, A report by the Pan African Chemistry Networks, March 2010.

View Full Article: