Food adulteration and contamination in India: occurrence, implication and safety measures

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    In India, adulteration and contamination are encountered in food consumed at the household level, in the food service establishments and business firms, and also when sold as street foods. Non-permitted colors are the most common additives to foods. Contamination of mycotoxins, metals and pesticides in daily foods and milk has been found highly toxic and carcinogenic, and about 70% of deaths are supposed to be of food-borne origin. In this paper, food safety measures are emphasized with an objective of prevention of health hazards and strengthening of regulatory system. It is possible to prevent food adulteration and contamination if people are made aware of health hazards. If food inspectors are vigilant and active, the risk of food toxicity can be minimized at all levels of food supply and consumption. Further, simple measures can prevent further complications, particularly those caused by microbiological contaminants. Fatal diseases and health hazards prevalent in India can be minimized and consumers can live happily with good health. The social life in the communities is strengthened resulting in less expense on health related problems. Citizens aware of food adulteration and contamination can arrange camps/campaigns through local bodies and safe food can be the goal for all concerned.

    Keywords: Food Adulterants And Contaminants, Mycotoxins, Food Safety, Preventive Measures, India.


  • References


    1. R.K. Bansal, A.K. Sobti, An economic remedy for the control of two species of Aspergillus on groundnut, Indian Phytopathology 43 (1990) 451-452.
    2. N. Barro, A.R. Bellow, Y. Itsteimbou, A. Savadogo, C.A.T. Ouattara, A.P. Nikiema, C. De Souza, A.S. Traore, Street-vended foods improvement- contamination mechanisms and application of food safety objective strategy: Critical review, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6 (2007) 1-10.
    3. R.V. Bhat, Food Safety Evaluation: National and International Perspectives. Nutrition Foundation of India, New Delhi, India, 1997.
    4. R.V. Bhat, P.H. Shetty, R.P. Amruth, R.V. Sudershan, A food borne disease outbreak due to consumption of mouldy sorghum and maize containing fumonisin mycotoxins, Journal of Toxicology & Clinical Toxicology 35 (1997) 249-255.
    5. H. Chandra, O.P. Sidhu, J. Srivastava, N. Rai, S.V.S. Chauhan, A. Singh, A.R. Nautiyal, Synergistic effect of Pongamia pinnata bark and Tamarindus indica fruit extract against aflatoxin producing fungus, i.e. Aspergillus flavus. Environment Conservation Journal 8 (2007) 101-107.
    6. S. Dahiya, R. Karpe, A.G. Hegde, R.M. Sharma, Lead, cadmium and nickel in chocolates and candies from suburban areas of Mumbai, India. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 18 (2005) 517-522.
    7. M. Das, Food Safety. Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India, 2011.
    8. S. De, Food safety: Steps of rising concern, Everymans Science 65 (2010) 219-222.
    9. M.D. Dethe, V.D. Kale, S.D. Rane, Possible residues in/on farm gate samples of vegetables, Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems 1 (1995) 49-53.
    10. S. Dixit, R.C. Pandey, M. Das, S.K. Khanna, Food quality surveillance on colours in eatables sold in rural markets of Uttar Pradesh, Journal of Food Science and Technology 32 (1995) 373-376.
    11. FAO, Assuring Food Safety and Quality: Considerations of Food Safety and Consumer Protection. FAO Corporate Document Repository, Agriculture and Consumer Protection Division, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy, 2011. (http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y870e/y870e09.html). FSSA, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, India, 2011.
    12. R.T. Gahukar, Agro-medical Guide of Synthetic Pesticides, 1st edn., Agri-Horticultural Publishing House, Nagpur, India, 1999.
    13. R.T. Gahukar, Are Indian foods from genetically modified crops safe? International Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 2 (2004) 11-13.
    14. R.T. Gahukar, Adulterated food, Kisan World 36(8) (2009) 33.
    15. L.G.M. Gorris, Food safety objective: An integral part of food chain management, Food Control 16 (2005) 801-809.
    16. A. Hegde, M. Ballal, S. Shenoy, Detection of diarrheogenic Escherichia coli by multiplex PCR, Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 30 (2012) 279-284.
    17. P.K. Jaiswal, Common Adulterants/Contaminants in Food and Simple Screening Tests for Their Detection, Central AGMARK Laboratories, Nagpur, India, 2011.
    18. G.R. Janardhana, K.A. Raveesha, H.S. Shetty, Mycotoxins contamination of maize grains grown in India (Karnataka), Food Chemistry and Toxicology 37 (1999) 863-868.
    19. G.D.S. Kumar, M.N. Popat, Farmers perceptions, knowledge and management of aflatoxins in groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) in India, Crop Protection 29 (2010) 1534-1541.
    20. N.R. Kumar, A. Nath, Monitoring bovine milk for DDT and HCH. Pesticide Research Journal 8 (1996) 90-92.
    21. V. Kumar, M.S. Basu, T.P. Rajendran, Mycotoxin research and microflora in some commercially important agricultural commodities, Crop Protection 27 (2008) 891-905.
    22. D. Kurup, Mercury for Lunch, Lead for Dinner. The Hindu, issue of July 8 (pp. 1-2), Bangalore, India, 2009.
    23. C.F. Lin, Global food security: Exploring key elements for an international regulatory strategy, Virginia Journal of International Law Association 51 (2011) 637-694.
    24. J. Luo, P.F. Vogel, L. Niessen, Development and application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid identification of aflatoxigenic molds and their detection in food samples, International Journal of Food Microbiology 159 (2012) 214-224.
    25. D.P. Mahale, R.G. Khade, V.K. Vaidya, Microbiological analysis of street-vended fruit juices from Mumbai city, India, Internet Journal of Food Safety 10 (2008) 31-34.
    26. S. Majumdar, Food hazards and food security, Everymans Science 64 (2010) 348- 355.
    27. S.S. Mishra, Pesticide-rich food, Down To Earth 19(18) (2011) 16.
    28. K.P. Nair, T.B. Mathew, Home processing to address food safety issues in cereals, Journal of Insect Science, 26 (Special issue) (2013) 111-119.
    29. P.S. Negi, Plant extracts for the control of bacterial growth: Efficacy, stability and safety issues for food application, International Journal of Food Microbiology 156 (2012) 7-17.
    30. M.M. Rahman, S. Akhter, M. Jamal, D.R. Pandeya, M.A. Haque, M.F. Alam, Control of coliform bacteria detected from diarrhea associated patients by extracts of Moringa oleifera, Nepal Medical College Journal 12(1) (2010) 12-19.
    31. S. Rastogi, P.D. Dwivedi, S.K. Khama, M. Das, Detection of aflatoxin M-1 contamination in milk and infant milk products from Indian markets by ELISA, Food Control 15 (2004) 287-290.
    32. G. Sarathchandra, B. Muralimanohar, Occurrence of mycotoxins in livestock feeds and feedstuffs of Tamil Nadu, Journal of Environmental Biology 34 (2013) 825-830.
    33. K. Sharma, P.P. Dhyani, S.S. Samant, Toxic chemicals in fruits and vegetables: An overview, Everymans Science 65 (2010) 215-218.
    34. M.W. Sidiqui, R.S. Dhua, Eating artificially ripened fruits is harmful, Current Science 99 (2010) 1664-1668.
    35. Y.P Singh, G. Sumbali, Aflatoxin B1 contamination in commercial varieties of apple and pear fruits with Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries, Indian Phytopathology 64 (2011) 100-101.
    36. P. Srilakshmi, R.P. Thakur, K. Satyaprasad, Mechanism of biocontrol of Aspergillus flavus in groundnut by species of Trichoderma, Journal of Mycology & Plant Pathology 41 (2011) 249-254.
    37. K. Subbannayya, G.K. Bhat, S. Shetty, V.G. Junu, How safe is sugarcane juice? Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 25 (2007) 73-74.
    38. R.V. Sudershan, G.K. Bhat, A survey on veterinary drug use and residues in milk in Hyderabad, Food Additives and Contaminants 12 (1995) 645-650.
    39. R.V. Sudershan, P. Rao, K. Polasa, Food safety research in India: A review, Asian Journal of Food & Agro-Industry 2 (2009) 412-433.
    40. WHO, Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants, 67th Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, WHO Technical Report Series no. 940, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2007.

 

View

Download

Article ID: 1727
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijbas.v3i1.1727




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.