Efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and garlic (Allium sativum) on Eimeria species in broilers

  • Authors

    • Ahmed Elkhtam fac vet med adat city university
    • Amira Shata fac vet med sadat city university
    • M.H. El-Hewaity
  • In this study, powders were evaluated for their anticoccidial effects. In in vitro, sporulated oocysts of mixed Eimeria species isolated from naturally infected chickens were randomly assigned to 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.6, 0.3, 0.2 and 0.08 g turmeric and garlic powders /liter distilled water (g/L). The efficacy of garlic was higher (up to 80%) than turmeric (up to 66.6%) at different concentrations. In the in vivo study, one-day old chicks were divided into 7 equal groups. All groups were infected with 10.000 viable sporulated oocysts of mixed Eimeria spp. orally except G7 (-ve control). G1 and G2 were infected and supplemented with turmeric powder at 10 and 5 g/L, respectively, G3 and G4 were infected and supplemented with garlic powder at 10 and 5 g/L, respectively. G5 was infected and treated with Amprolium at 1.25 g/L, G6 (+ve control) infected, non-treated and G7 was non-infected & non-treated. Clinical signs and lesion score were less sever in garlic supplemented groups compared with turmeric supplemented groups. Reduction of total oocyst count in garlic supplemented group more than turmeric supplemented group. It is concluded that Garlic powder was more effective than turmeric powder in treatment and control of coccidiosis.

    Keywords: Chicken Coccidiosis, Turmeric, Garlic, Anticoccidial Effect.

  • References

    1. J.A. Oluyemi and F.A. Roberts, Poultry Production in Warm Wet Climates. 2nd Edn., Spectrum Books, Ibadan, Nigeria, ISBN: 9789780290979, (2000) Pages:190.
    2. W. Min, R.A. Dalloul and H.S. Lillehoj, Application of biotechnological tools for coccidian vaccine development. J. Vet. Sci., 5 (2004) 279–288.
    3. R.A. Dalloul and H.S. Lillehoj Recent advances in immunomodulation and vaccination strategies against coccidiosis. Avian Dis., 49 (2005) 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/7306-11150R.
    4. M.W. Shirley, Eimeria species and strain of chickens, in J. Eckert, R. Braun, M.W. Shirley, P. Coudert (Eds.), Cost 89/820. Biotechnology. Guidelines on Techniques in Coccidiosis Research, The European Commission, (1995) pp. 1–24.
    5. E.J.L. Soulsby, Helminths Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th Edn., Bailliere Tindall, London, UK., (1982) pp: 573-574.
    6. J.F. Ryley, Drug resistance in coccidian. J. Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med., 24 (1980) 99–120.
    7. R.F. Gordon and F.T.W. Jordan, Poultry Diseases. 2nd Edn., American Association of Avian Pathologiest, UK (1982).
    8. H.D. Chapman, Drug resistance in avian coccidia (a review).Vet. Parasitol. 15 (1) (1984) 11–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4017 (84)90106-7.
    9. H.D. Chapman, Biochemical, genetic and applied aspects of drug resistance in Eimeria parasites of the fowl. Avian Pathol., 26 (1997) 221–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079459708419208.
    10. A. Permin, Epidemiology Diagnosis and Control of Poultry Parasites. FAO, United Nations, Rome (1998).
    11. H.W. Peek and W.J. Landman, Resistance to anticoccidial drugs of Dutch avian Eimeria spp. fieLC isolates originating from 1996, 1999 and 2001. Avian Pathol. 32 (4) (2003) 391–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0307945031000121149.
    12. C.G. Harper and A. Makatouni, Consumer perception of organic food production and farm animal welfare. Br. Food J., 104 (2002). 287–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00070700210425723.
    13. H.J. Youn and J.W. Noh, Screening of the anticoccidial effect of herb extract against Eimeria tenella. Veterinary of Parasitol., 96 (2001) 257-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017 (01)00385-5.
    14. I. Giannenas, P. Florou-Paneri, M. Papazahariadou, E. Christaki, N.A. Botsoglou and A.B. Spais, Effect of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on performance of broilers after experimental infection with Eimeria tenella. Arch. Tierernahr., 57 (2) (2003) 99–106.
    15. R. Saini, S. Davis and W. Dudley-Cash, Oregano essential oil reduces the expression of coccidiosis in broilers. Proceeding of the 52nd Conference on Western Poultry Diseases, Sacramento, CA, (2003) pp. 97–98.
    16. E.O. Oviedo-Rondón, M.E. Hume, C. Hernandez and S. Clemente-Hernandez, Intestinal microbial ecology of broilers vaccinated and challenged with mixed Eimeriaspecies, and supplemented with essential oil blends. Poult. Sci., 85 (2006) 854–860. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ps/85.5.854.
    17. E.C. Delaha and V.F. Garagusi Inhibition of mycobacteria by garlic extract (Allium sativum).Antimicrob. Agent Chemother., 27 (1985) 485-486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.27.4.485.
    18. S. Somasundaram, N.A. Edmund, D.T. Moore, G.W. Small, Y. Shi and R.Z. Orlowski, Dietary curcumin inhibits chemotherapy – induced apoptosis in models of human breast cancer. Cancer Res., 62 (2002) 3868 -3875.
    19. P.R. Holt, S. Katz and R. Kirshoff, Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study. Digest. Dis. Sci., 50 (2005) 2191-2193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-005-3032-8.
    20. M. Iqbal, S.D. Sharma, Y. Okazaki, M. Fujisawa and S. Okada, Dietary supplementation of curcumin enhances antioxidant and phase II metabolizing enzymes in ddY male mice: possible role in protection against chemical carcinogenesis and toxicity. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 92 (2003) 33-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0773.2003.920106.x.
    21. M.C. Ramirez-Tortosa, M.D. Mesa, M.C. Aguilera, J.L. Quiles and L. Baro, Oral administration of a turmeric extract inhibits LDL oxidation and has hypocholesterolemic effects in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, 147 (1999) 371-378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9150 (99)00207-5.
    22. A. Duvoix, R. Blasius, S. Delhalle, M. Schnekenburger and F. Morceau, Chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of curcumin. Cancer Lett., 223 (2005) 181-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2004.09.041.
    23. K. Polasa, T.C. Raghuram and T.P. Krishna, Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) induced reduction in urinary mutagens. Food Chem. Toxicol., 29 (1991) 699-706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(91)90128-T.
    24. H.G. Anwarul, J. Abdul, N. Muhammad and M. Kashif, Pharmacological basis for the use of turmeric in gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. Life Sci., 76 (2006) 3089-3105.
    25. A.K. Chowdhury, M. Ahson, S.K. Nazrul Islam and Z.U. Ahmed, Efficacy of aqueous extract of garlic and allicin in experimental shigellosis in rabbits. Indian J. Med. Res., 93 (1991) 33–36.
    26. H. Yoshida, N. Iwata, H. Katsuzaki, R. Naganawa, K. Ishikawa, H. Fukuda, T. Fujino and A. Suzuki, Antimicrobial activity of a compound isolated from an oil-macerated garlic extract. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 62 (1998)1014–1017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.62.1014.
    27. A.T. Fleischauer, C.H. Poole, and L. Arab, Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72 (2000) 1047–1052.
    28. S.G. Sundaram and J.A. Milner, Diallyl disulfide inhibits the proliferation of human tumor cells in culture. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1315 (1996) 15–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0925-4439 (95)00088-7.
    29. Y. Karasaki, S. Tsukamoto, K. Mizusaki, T. Sugiura and S. Gotoh, A garlic lectin exerted an antitumor activity and induced apoptosis in human tumor cells. Food Res. Int., 34 (2001) 7–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969 (00)00122-8.
    30. A. Duraka, H.S. Ozturk, E. Olcay and, C. Guven, Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J. Herbal Pharmacother., 2 (2002) 19–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/J157v02n02_03.
    31. V.G. Kumar, K.P. Surendranathan, K.G. Umesh, D.R. Gayathri Devi and M.R. Belwadi, Effect of onion (Allium cepa Linn.) and garlic (AlliumSativum Linn.) on plasma triglyceride content in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonicum). Indian J. Exp. Biol., 41 (2003) 88–90.
    32. R. Peyghan, M.D. Powell and M.R. Zadkarami, In vitro effect of garlic extract and metronidazole against Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis, page 1987 and isolated amoebae from Atlantic salmon. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 11 (2008) 41–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2008.41.47.
    33. T. Ghazanfari, Z.M. Hassan, and A. Khamesipour, Enhancement of peritoneal macrophage phagocytic activity against Leishmania major by garlic (Allium sativum) treatment. J. Ethnopharmacol., 103 (2006) 333–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.026.
    34. A.J. Nok, S. Williams and P.C. Onyenekwe, Allium sativum-induced death of African trypanosomes. Parasitol. Res., 82 (1996) 634–637. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004360050177.
    35. A. Wahba, Studies on the efficacy of garlic extract on cryptosporidiosis in experimentally infected mice. Egypt. J. Agric. Res., 81 (2003) 793–803.
    36. F. H. Toulah and M. M. Al-Rawi, Efficacy of garlic extract on hepatic coccidiosis in infected rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): histological and biochemical studies. J. Egypt Soc. Parasitol., 37 (3) (2007) 957-968.
    37. D. Bensky and A. Gamble, Herbs that expel parasites, In: Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Eastland Press Inc., Seattle, Washington (1993); 441-444.
    38. U. H. Ahsan, K. A. Meraj and S. Rasool Effect of Supplementing Allium Sativum (Garlic) and Azadirechta Indica (Neem) Leaves in Broilers Feed on their Blood Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Antibody Titer. Int. J. Agri. Biol., 1(3) (1999) 125-127.
    39. E.J.L. Soulsby, Helminthes, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals, 6th Ed. Bailliere and Tindall, London (1978).
    40. N.M. Elbahy, A.M. Mokhbattly and M.E. Verginia, Comparative clinicopathological studies on garlic ethanolic extract and halofuginone compound against coccidiosis in chicken. Kafr Elsheikh Vet. J., 1(1) (2006).
    41. R.E. Khalafalla, U. Müller, M. Shahiduzzaman, V. Dyachenko, A.Y. Desouky, G. Alber and A. Daugschies, Effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) on Eimeria tenella sporozoites in vitro. Parasitol Res., 108 (4) (2011) 879-886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-2129-y.
    42. P.L. Long and L.P. Joyner, A guide to laboratory techniques used in the study and diagnosis of avian coccidiosis. Folia Vet. Lat., 6 (1976) 201–217.
    43. A. Petrie and P. Watson, "Statistics for Veterinary and Animal Science." 1st Ed. The Black well Science Ltd, United Kingdom (1999) PP 90 – 99, 110 – 115.
    44. L.R. McDougald and W.M. Reid, Coccidiosis.In Diseases of Poultry, 10th Edition, B. W. Calnek, ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA. (1997)P 865-883.
    45. A.B. Idris, D.I. Bounous, M.A. Goodwin, J. Brown and E.A. Krushinskie, Lack of correlation between microscopic lesion scores and gross lesion scores in commercially grown broilers examined for small intestinal Eimeria spp. coccidiosis. Avian Diseases, 41 (1997) 388-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1592194.
    46. H.S. Lillehoj, C.H. Kim, Jr. CL. Keeler and S. Zhang, Immunogenomic Approaches to Study Host Immunity to Enteric Pathogens. Poultry Science, 86 (2007) 1491-1500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ps/86.7.1491.
    47. P.C. Allen, H.D. Danforth and P.C. Augustine, Dietary modulation of avian coccidiosis. Int. J. Parasitol., 28 (1998) 1131-1140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519 (98)00029-0.
    48. G. Eraslan, Y. Cam, M. Eren and B.C. Liman, Changes in malondialdehyde level and catalase activity and effect of toltrazuril on these parameters in chicks infected with Eimeria tenella. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy, 48 ((2004) 251–254.
    49. M.M. Chan, N.S. Adapala and D. Fong, Curcumin overcomes the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide on Leishmania. Parasitol Res., 96 (1) (2005) 49-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-005-1323-9.
    50. R.S. Policegoudra, K. Abiraj, D.C. Gowda and S.M. Aradhya, Isolation and characterization of antioxidant and antibacterial compound from mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome. Journal of Chromatography B, 852 (2007) 40-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2006.12.036.
    51. A. Sodsai, P. Piyachaturawat, S. Sophasan, A. Suksamrarn and M. Vongsakul, Suppression by Curcuma comosa Roxb. of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in phorbol-12-myristate-13- acetate stimulated human mononuclear cells. International Immunopharmacology, 7 (2007) 524- 531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2006.12.013.
    52. K. Mannangatti and M. Narayanasamy, Antifungal protein from a medicinal plant, Curcuma caesia Roxb. Journal of Biotechnology, 136 (2008) p90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2008.07.204.
    53. P. C. Allen and H. D. Danforth, Effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on coccidiosis in chickens. Poult. Sci., 77 (1998) 1631–1635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ps/77.11.1631.
    54. J. Sikkema, J.A.M. De Bont and B. Poolman, Mechanisms of membrane toxicity of hydrocarbons. Microbiol. Rev., 59 (1995) 201-222.
    55. P. Mikaili, S. Maadirad, M. Moloudizargari, S.H. Aghajanshakeri and S. Shadi, Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds. Iran J. Basic Med. Sci., 16 (2013) 1031-1048.
    56. H.P. Koch and D.L. Lawson, The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. and Related species. 2nd Ed. Printed in the United States of America (1996).
    57. R. Pentz, Z. Guo, G. Kress, D. Mulller, B. Mulller and C.P. Siegers, Standardization of garlic powder preparations by the estimation of free and hydrolysable SH groups. Planta Med., 56 (1990) 691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-961370.
    58. Y. Ueda, M. Kawajiri, N. Miyamura, and R. Miyajima, Content of some sulfur – containing components and free amino acids in various strains of garlic. J. Jpn. Soc. Food Sci. Technol., 38 (1991) 429- 34. http://dx.doi.org/10.3136/nskkk1962.38.429.
    59. C.A. Herrick and C.E. Holmes, Effect of sulfur on coccidiosis in chickens. Vet. Med., 31 (1936) 390- 391
    60. Y.M. Saif, H.J. Barnes, J.R. Glisson, A.M. Fadly, L.R. McDougald and D.E. Swayne, Diseases of Poultry 11th ed. Iowa State Press (2003).
    61. V. Naidoo, L. McGaw, S. Bisschop, N. Ducan and J. Eloff, The value of plant extracts with antioxidant activity in attenuating coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Vet. Parasitol., 153 (2008) 214-9 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.02.013.
    62. M.A. Dkhil, A.S. Abdel-Baki, F. Wunderlich, H. Sies and S. Al-Quraishya, Anticoccidial and antiinflammatory activity of garlic in murine Eimeria papillata infections. Veterinary Parasitology, 175 (2011) 66–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.09.009.
    63. H.A. El-Banna, Amera Abd El Latif and M. Soliman, Anticoccidial Activity of Allium Sativum and Aloe Vera in Broilers. International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences.doi:10.5455/ijavms.167 (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijavms.167.
    64. A.D. Fetouh and M.L. Naji, Effect of Nigella Sativa and Curcuma Longa on Experimental Eimeria Tenella Infections in Chicks. Egyptian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 16(4) (2007)
    65. A. M. Yosseff, D. H. Mansour, T.M. Ramadan, A. A. Dessouki, Comparative clinicopathological studies on the effect of some herbal plants as anticoccidial agents in broiler chickens. 8th Sci. Conf., Egyptian Veterinary poultry Association (2007).
    66. R.Z. Abbas, Z. Iqbal, M.N. Khan, M.A. Zafar, and Zia, M.A. Anticoccidial activity of Curcuma longa L. in Broiler Chickens. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 53 (1) (2010) 63-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132010000100008.
  • Downloads

  • How to Cite

    Elkhtam, A., Shata, A., & El-Hewaity, M. (2014). Efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and garlic (Allium sativum) on Eimeria species in broilers. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(3), 349-356. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijbas.v3i3.3142