Analysis of essential elements in Ethiopian finger millets (eeleusine coracanda) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)
Keywords:Finger Millet, INAA, Macro and Macronutrient, Medicinal Plants, SRMS.
The objective of this study was to determine essential elements in white, black and mixed species of Ethiopian finger millets using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The samples were collected from the local market of Bahirdar city, in Northwest Ethiopia. After the samples were dried, milled, heat sealed in a polythene sheet and put in a vial, they were irradiated in the irradiation channels of the Nigeria research reactor. The activities of the samples were measured using HPGe gamma spectrometry and analyzed by Winspan 2004 software. A total of 16 elements (Ca, Mg, K, Cl, V, Al, Ba, Na, Mn Fe, Zn, La, Sc, Sm, Br and Rb) were analyzed in three of the samples. According to the analyzed data Ca, Mg and K as macronutrients were found in range of 592 ± 21 ppm to 4876 ± 36 ppm, elements Fe, Al, and Cl as micronutrient were obtained in the range of 156 ± 18 to 775 ± 42 ppm with all others elements measured in traces. The results, therefore, showed that black and mixed finger millets are significantly enriched in essential elements. In addition, finger millets have also medicinal properties for controlling diabetes, blood pressure, anemia, stomach cancer and Alzheimer because they contained in pharmacological elements: Mg, Fe, Zn, V and Mn.
 P. Rajalakshmi, Sahayam C Savariraj and Devanathan R., Special medicinal implications of navadhanyam, International journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 6(1), (2014), 54-62.
 B.K., Shashi Sunda Sharan, Shailaja Hittalamant, Shankar A. G., and Nagarathna T.K., Micronutrient composition, anti-nutritional factors and bioaccessibility of iron in different finger millet (Eleusine coracana) genotypes, Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 20(3), 2007.
 Sonia Plaza-Wuthrich and Zerihun Tadele, Millet improvement through regeneration and transformation, Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, 7(2), 2012.
 Shimels Admassu, Mulugeta Teamer and Dawit Alemu, Millet (Eleusina corocanda) varieties grown in Ethiopia, Ethiopian J health Sci., 19(1), 2009.
 Paragya Singh and Rita Singh Raghuvanshi, Finger millet for food and nutritional security, Africa Journal of Food Science, 6(4), 2012.
 Krishania Suman and Agarwal Kalpana, Effects of heavy metals stress on callus induction and regeneration of finger millet (Eleusine coracana), Research journal of recent Science, 2, pp.24-28, 2013.
 Khouloud Bachae, Elhem mansor, Abdennaceur Ben Haled, mansor Handdaa, Mabrouuka Abdi, Leila Ben Yahaya, Nacer El Jarray and Ali Ferchchi, Fiber content and mineral composition of finger millet of the oasis of gabes Tunisia, Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(2), 2013.
 Paragya Singh and Rita Singh Raghuvanshi, Formulation and quality evaluation of iron rich namakpare mixes using finger millet, International Journal of life Sciences, 1(4), 2012.
 M. Govinadappa, A. P. Vishwanath, K. N. Harsha, P. Thimmedowda and A.C. Jnanes, Response of finger millet (Elusine coracana) to organic and inorganic sources of nutrients under rainefed condition, Journal of crop and weed, 5(1), (2009), 291-293.
 Y. A. Yamusa, Y.A. Ahmed, Y. Musa, S.A Kasim, M. Tukur and Bilal S., Multi-elemental analysis of local millet and wheat by instrumental neutron activation analysis using NIRR-1 facility. International journal of Multidisciplinary sciences and Engineering, 4(7), (2013), 9-13.
 A. N. Adazabra, Apori Ntiforo and K.Appiah-kubi, Compositional elemental analysis of some core herbal plants used in northern Ghana by instrumental neutron activation analysis, Scholars Research Library, 4(5), 2012.
 E. Joseph, R. Nasisiru and Y.A. Ahmed. Trace elements pattern in some Nigerian commercial infant milk and infant cereal formulas, Scholars Research Library, 2(2), 2011.
 Richard B. Firestone. â€œTable of Isotopes.â€ Eighth edition, Wiley Interscience, 1999.
 S. Shobana, V. Sudha, N.G. Makkeshi, R.M. Anjana, L. Palaniappan, V. Mohanand k. Krishnaswamy, Nutritional properties, processing, and plausible health benefits, Advance in Food and Nutrition Research, 69, 2013.
 Charles P., Calcium absorption and calcium bio-availability, Journal of international Medicine, 231, 1992.
 N.J. Birch and C. Padgham, Handbook of metals in clinical and analytical Chemistry, Marceldekker, New York, 1994.
 Prag A Pendekar. and Raman Bhanu, Multi-elemental determination in the metabolic solvent leaf extract of senecarpus anacrdim by ICPS technique, Asian J Pharm Clin Res., 6 (3), 2013, 132-137.
 G M. Garbossa, G., Galvez, G. Perez, J. Stripeikis, M. Tudino and A. Nesse, Oral aluminum administration to rats with normal renal function, 2, Body distribution, Hum Exp Toxico, 117, 1998.
 R. Flared, Absorption of aluminum from antiperspirants and vaccine adjuvant, Elsevier, 117, 2001.
 Sk Debrah, Je Ayivor, D Denustsui, A Buah- kwofie, A. Forson and C. Nuviadenu, Elemental evaluation of some herbal plants used in Ghana using INAA, Scholars Research Library, 3(5), 2011, 202-207.
 S.A Agaja and M.E. Omatosa, Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of talinum trangulare and telfaria occidentntalis leaf vegetables consumed in Warri, Deltanstate, Nigeria, American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 3(3), 2013.
 Muhammad Saeed, Murad Ali khan, Fariddullah Khan, Haron Khan, Nurad Ahmed Khan, and Nareed Muhammad, Quantification of various metals and cytotoxic profile of aerial parts of polygonatum verticilatum, Pakistan J. Bot., 42(6), 2010.
 Ram Lokhande , Mahadeo Andhale and Pravin Singare, Study on mineral content of some ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants by instrumental neutron Activation analysis and AAS technique, Health Science Journal, 4(3), 2010.
 K.O. Soefan, C.O.Olaiyea and O.E. Oyewole, The importance of mineral elements for human, animals and plants.â€ A review, African Journal of food science, 4(5), (2010), 633-637.
 A.A.D Djama, M.C Koussai Goffri., A.A Koua, Ofosu F.G. , and I.I.K. Aboh, Trace elements analysis of some antiparastic medicinal plants in cote divoire using energy â€“despersive x-ray fluorescence(EDXRF), Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 3(3), 2011.
 Abdulal Ghani, Zulfaqar ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq, Mehwish maqbool , and Saira Paveen, Estimation of macro and micro nutrients in some important medicinal plants of soon valley, district khushab, Pakistan, African Journal of Biotechnology, 1(78), (2012), 14386-14391.
 Koneczynski W. Guenther. Speciation of Mg, Mn and Zn in extracts of medicinal plants, Anal Bioanal Chem 375 (2010), 1067â€“1073.
 Hawes H. Nath, Nature cures: The A-Z of human Aliments and natural, Hammersmith Health Books, 2014.