Pharmacokinetics and tissue residue of toltrazuril in broiler chickens

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    The pharmacokinetics and tissue residue of toltrazuril (Baycox®, Bayer Animal Health) were investigated in broiler chickens after repeated oral administrations of 7 mg/kg b.wt once daily for two consecutive days. Chickens were subjected to clinical diagnosis to ensure that each one is free from any Eimeria was received a standard broiler feed free from any medications. The results revealed that following repeated oral administration; toltrazuril peaked in blood with [Cmax] of 6.56 and 6.70 μg/ml at [Tmax] of 2.56 and 2.52 hours and the elimination half-life [t1/2β] of 14.92 and 16.19 hours and the mean residence times (MRT) were 21.33 and 23.14 hours after first and second doses, respectively. The tissue level concentrations were highest in the kidney and decreased in the following order: liver > lung > heart > muscle > skin and fat. No toltrazuril residues were detected in tissues and plasma after 8 days.


  • Keywords


    Broiler; Disposition; Pharmacokinestics; Tissue Residue; Toltrazuril.

  • References


      [1] P. Allen, H. Danforth, P. Augustine, Dietary modulation of avian coccidiosis, International Journal of Parasitology (28) (1998) 1131-1140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(98)00029-0.

      [2] P. Augustine, Cell sporozoite interactions and invasion by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Emieria, International Journal of Parasitology (31) (2001) 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(00)00150-8.

      [3] H. Chapman, Chemotherapy of caecal coccidiosis: efficiacy of toltrazuril, sulphaquinoxaline/pyrimethamine and amprolium/ethopabate, given in drinking water, against field isolates of Eimeria tenella, Research in Veterinary Science (46) (1989) 419-420.

      [4] C. Chauve, Caracterisation de la faune coccidienne des Anatinae decomestique (Anax platyrhynchos, Cairina moschata et leur hybride le cannrd mulard). Description d'une novella espece Eimeria mulardi. Cycle evolutif et pathogenenicite. These Dect. D'Universite Lyon, 1994; 116 pp.

      [5] C. Chauve, J. Gastellu, M. Reybaud, Patyhogenicite d,Eimeria mulardi chez le canard mulard après infection experimentale. Precision des stades pathogens. Avian Pathology (23) (1994) 557-568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079459408419025.

      [6] E. Benoit, T. Buronfosse, P. Delatour, Effect of cytochrome P-450 IA induction on enantioselective metabolism and pharmacokinetics of an aryltrifluoromethyl sulfide in the rat, Chirality (6) (1994) 372-377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chir.530060503.

      [7] T.Sreter, Z. Szell, I. Varega, Attempted chemorophylaxis of cryptosporidiosis in chickens using diclazuril, toltrazuril or garlic extract, Journal of Parasitology (85) (1999) 989-991. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3285847.

      [8] H. Mehlhorn, G. Ortmann-Falkenstein, A. Haberkon, The effects of sym. Triazinones on developmental stages of Emeria tenella, E. maxima and E. acervulina: a light and electron microscobical study, Z. Parasitenkd (70) (1984) 173-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00942219.

      [9] M. Reynaud, C. Chauve, J. Gastellu, J. Gounel, Administration of toltrazuril during experimental coccidiosis in mule ducks: comparison of the efficacy of a single administration at two different endogenous stages, Veterinary Parasitology (81) (1999) 265-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(98)00256-8.

      [10] M. Kim, J. Lim, Y. Hwang, B. Park, I. Song, H. Yun, Plasma disposition of toltrazuril and its metabolites, toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone in rabbits after oral administration, Veterinary Parasitology (169) (2010) 51-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.12.011.

      [11] European Agency for the evaluation of European Medicines Agency (EMEA). Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products (Toltrazuril, Summary Report 3). The Euroean Agency for the evaluation of Med. Products. EMEA/MRL/620 699. UK, 2001.

      [12] M. Kim, B. Park, Y. Hwang, et al, Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of toltrazuril and its major metabolites after oral administration in broilers. Journal of Poultry Science (50) (2013) 257-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.0120050.

      [13] European Agency for the evaluation of European Medicines Agency (EMEA). Committee for Veterinary Products/The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Toltrazuril (Extension to Pig)—Summary Report, EMEA/MRL/907/00-FINAL, 2000.

      [14] European Agency for the Evaluation of European Medicines Agency (EMEA). Committee for Veterinary Products/The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Toltrazuril (Extension to Pigs)—Summary Report, EMEA/MRL/620/99-FINAL, 1999.

      [15] T. Tobin, L. Dirikolu, J. Harkins, et al, Preliminary pharmacokinetics of diclazuril and toltrazuril in the horse, American Association of Equine Practitioners (43) (1997) 15–16.

      [16] J. Lim, B. Park, M. Kim, Y. Hwang, I. Song, H. Yun, Pharmacokinetics of toltrazuril after oral administrations in broilers, Journal of Veterinary Clinics (24) (2007) 308–311.

      [17] L. Dirikolu, W. Karpiesiuk, A. Lehner, C. Hughes, D. Granstrom, T. Tobin, Synthesis and detection of toltrazuril sulfone and its pharmacokinetics in horses following administration in dimethylsulfoxide, Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (32) (2009) 368-378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2885.2008.01053.x.

      [18] B. Vermeulen, P. De Backer, J. Remon, Drug administration to poultry, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (54) (2002) 795-803. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-409X(02)00069-8.

      [19] J. Zhaoling, Z. Lifang, Z. Chong, Z. Xiao, X. Feiqun, SPE–UPLC–UV Method for the Determination of Toltrazuril and its Two Metabolite Residues in Chicken and Porcine Tissues, Chromatographia (77) (2014) 1705-1712. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10337-014-2759-9.

      [20] Z. Wenli, J. Zhaoling, Z. Lifang, et al, Simultaneous determination of toltrazuril and its metabolites in chicken and pig skin and fat by UPLC-UV method, Journal of Chromatography B (972) (2014) 89–94.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 4873
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijbas.v4i3.4873




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.