Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of cardamom against gentamicin induced hepatic damage in rats
Keywords:Cardamom, Hepatoprotective, Gentamicin, Liver Damage, Rats.
The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of cardamom in acute experimental liver injury induced by gentamicin. Twenty four male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups (six rats in each). Animals of the first group served as control and orally (p.o.) received (1 ml/kg saline). The second experimental group was given gentamicin (80 mg/kg i.p.) for 7 days. Third and fourth groups were given aqueous extract of cardamom (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) + gentamicin for 7 days, respectively. The degree of hepatoprotection was measured using serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), bilirubin, albumin, and lipid profile levels. In the acute liver damage induced by gentamicin, cardamom aqueous extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of AST, ALT, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-chol) in gentamicin induced hepatotoxicity. Also cardamom aqueous extracts (100 & 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the lowered serum levels of albumin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-chol) in gentamicin induced hepatotoxicity rats. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. Our findings concluded that cardamom aqueous extracts possessed hepatoprotective activity against gentamicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
 A. Muthuraman, S. Sood, and S.K. Singla, The antiinflammatory potential of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis L. in rat. Inflammopharmacology, (19) (2011) 327-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-010-0041-9.
 A. Jamal, K. Javed, M. Aslam, and M.A. Jafri, Gastroprotective effect of cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum Maton fruits in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, (103)(2006) 149-153.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.07.016.
 I. Hinneburg, H.J.D. Dorman, and R. Hiltunen, Antioxidant activities of extracts from selected culinary herbs and spices. Food Chemistry, (97) (2006) 122-129.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.03.028.
 M.N. Vasavada, S. Dwivedi, and D. Cornforth, Evaluation of garam masala spices and phosphates as antioxidants in cooked ground beef. Journal of Food Science, (71) (2006) C292-C297.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00039.x.
 H. Al-Zuhair, B. El-Sayeh, H.A. Ameen, and H. Al-Shoora, Pharmacological studies of cardamom oil in animals. Pharmacological Research, (34) (1996) 79-82.http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/phrs.1996.0067.
 A. Ramadan, N.A. Afifi, M.M. Fathy, E.A. El-Kashoury, and E.V. El-Naeneey, Some pharmacodynamic effects and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of certain plants used in Egyptian folk medicine. Veterinary Medical Journal, (42) (1994) 263-270.
 S.C. Garg, and R.K. Jain, Antimicrobial efficacy of essential oil of Elettaria cardamomum. Indian Perfumer, (45) (2001) 115-117.
 C. Mayuren, V.V. Reddy, S.V. Priya, and V.A. Devi, Protective effect of Livactine against CCL4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in adult Wister rats. North American Journal of Medical Sciences, (2) (2010) 492-495.
 G.B. Appel, Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. American Journal of Medicine, (88) (1990) 165-205.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343(90)90082-o.
 P. Kaushik, P. Goyal, A. Chauhan, and G. Chauhan, In Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Potential of Dry Fruit Extracts of Elettariacardamomum Maton (Chhoti Elaichi). Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (9) (2010) 287-292.
 A. Noorani, K. Gupta, K. Bhadada, and M.K. Kale, Protective Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Caesalpinia Bonduc (L.) on Gentamicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Rats. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, (10) (2011) 21-25.
 M.L. Harries, CarletonÂ´s Histopathological Technique 5th Ed. Oxford Univ Press, New York, Toronto, (1989) pp. 33-48.
 A. Jain, and A.K. Singhai, Effect of Momordica dioica Roxb on gentamicin model of acute renal failure. Natural Product Research, (24) (2010) 1379-1389.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786410802267569.
 C. Girish, B.C. Koner, S. Jayanthi, K.R. Rao, B. Rajesh, and S.C. Pradhan, Hepatoprotective activity of picroliv, curcumin and ellagic acid compared to silymarin on paracetamol induced liver toxicity in mice. Indian Journal of Medical Research, (129) (2009) 569-578.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-8206.2009.00722.x.
 D.E. Baranano, M. Rao, C.D. Ferris, and S.H. Synder, Biliverdinreductase: a major physiologic cytoprotectant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, (99) (2002) 16093-16098.http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.252626999.
 N. Mahmood, M. Haleh, P. Mohammad, F. Mohsen, and K.J. Hossein, Pathological changes of gentamicin in liver tissue and antioxidant property of cinnamon extract on wistar rats. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal. (7) (2014) 341-347.
 P. Martin, and L.S. Friedman, Assessment of liver function and diagnostic studies, In: Freidman L S and Keefe E B (Eds.), Hand Book of Liver Disease. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, (1992) pp.1-14.
 C. Yang, X. Du and Y. Han, Renal cortical mitochondria are the source of oxygen free radicals enhanced by gentamicin. Renal Failure (17) (1995) 21-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08860229509036371.
 M.A. Abdel-Wahhab and S.E. Aly, Antioxidant property of Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in rats during aflatoxicosis. Journal of Applied Toxicology, (25) (2005) 218-223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.1057.
 O.D. Omodamiro and C.I. Nwankwo, The effect of Voacanga africana leaves extract on serum lipid profile and haematological parameters on albino wistar rats. European Journal of Experimental Biology (3) (2013) 140-148.
 E.G.E. El-Sahar, and A.M.M. Abed El-Rahman, Hepatoprotective activity of different doses of Spirulina against ccl4 induced liver damage in rats. Journal of American Science, (8) (2012) 916-924.
 N. Mathur, V. Chaudhary, M. Mehta, and S. Gupta, Sunset yellow induced changes in the lipid profile in male albino rat. Biochemical and cellular archives, (5) (2005) 197-200.
 S. RamachandraSetty, A.A. Quereshi, A.H.M. ViswanathSwamy, T. Patil, T. Prakash, K. Prabhu, and A, Veeran Gouda, Hepatoprotective activity of Calotropis procera flowers against paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats. Fitoterapia, (78) (2007) 451-454.
 Y.W. Hsu, C.F. Tsai, W.K. Chen, and F.J. Lu, Protective effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophaer hamnoidesL.) seed oil against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, (47) (2009) 2281-2288.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.06.015.
 A. Acharya, I. Das, S. Singh and Saha T, Chemopreventive properties of indole-3-carbinol, diindolylmethane and other constituents of cardamom against carcinogenesis. Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture, (2) (2010) 166-177.http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2212798411002020166.
 E.A. Sadeek and F.H. Abd El-Razek, the Chemo-Protective Effect of Turmeric, Chili, Cloves and Cardamom on Correcting Iron Overload-Induced Liver Injury, Oxidative Stress and Serum Lipid Profile in Rat Models. Journal of American Science, (6) (2010) 702-712.
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution Licensethat allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work''s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal''s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).