Variations in yield and composition of leaf essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum at various phases of development

Authors

  • Razafimamonjison Gaylor Université d’Antananarivo, École Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques
  • Boulanger Renaud Cirad UMR Persyst
  • Jahiel Michel Cirad UPR Hortsys
  • Ramanoelina Panja Université d’Antananarivo, École Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques
  • Fawbush Fanja Université d’Antananarivo, École Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques
  • Lebrun Marc Cirad UMR Persyst
  • Danthu Pascal Cirad UR 105 Bsef

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14419/ijbas.v5i1.5614

Keywords:

Composition, Essential oil, Eugenol, Eugenyl acetate, Development phases, Syzygium aromaticum leaves, Yield.

Abstract

The changes in the essential oil yield and composition from Syzygium aromaticum leaf harvested at different phases of development from young leaves to mature leaves were studied. Separation of the essential oils was conducted by steam distillation in a Clevenger apparatus for about 4h. Essential oils analyses were performed by GC/MS. The yield of essential oil (ml per 100 g of DM) of the leaf following the four phases of development was in order of: young leaves (5.1%) > expanded leaves 1 (4.5%) > expanded leaves 2 (4.1%) > mature leaves (3.8%). Sixteen compounds were detected by GC/MS. Eugenol and eugenyl acetate were the dominant components. Eugenol and eugenyl acetate amount had a divergent evolution during the four expansions of leaves. When eugenol reached its highest percentages at expanded leaves 2 (84.00 - 90.48%) and mature leaves stage (88.32 - 90.22%), eugenyl acetate reached the lowest ones with, respectively, 0.96 - 7.16% and 0.36 - 1.64%, but when the eugenyl acetate reached a maximum percentage at young leaves stage with 61.44 - 65.52%, eugenol reached a minimum of 25.43 - 30.38%. It is judicious to collect and extract S. aromaticum leaf in expended leaves 2 (pale green leaves) and mature leaves stage (dark green leaves) in order to obtain the optimal yield and maximum percentage of eugenol.

References

[1] P. Danthu, E. Penot, K. M. Ranoarison, J. C. Rakotondravelo, I. Michel-Dounias, M. Tiollier, T. Michels, F. Normand, G. Razafimamonjison, F. Fawbush, M. Jahiel, “The clove tree of Madagascar: a success story with an unpredictable futureâ€, Bois et forêts des tropiques, 320, 2, (2014), 83 – 96.

[2] A. Srivastava, S. Srivastava, K. Syamsundar, "Bud and leaf essential oil composition of Syzygium aromaticum from India and Madagascar", Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 20, (2005), 51 - 53.

[3] F. Chami, N. Chami, S. Bennis, T. Bouchikhi, A. Remmal, "Oregano and clove essential oils induce surface alteration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae", Phytotherapy Research, 19, (2005), 405 - 408.

[4] M. Miyazawa, M. Hisama, "Suppression of chemical mutagen induced SOS response by alkylphenols from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) in Salmonella typhymurium.", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49 , (2001), 4019 - 4025.

[5] M. Ogata, M. Hoshi, S. Urano, T. Endo, "Antioxidant activity of eugenol and related monomeric and dimeric compounds", Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 48, (2000) 1467 - 1469.

[6] I. Park, S. Shin, "Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus)", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, (2005), 4388 - 4392.

[7] T. Tworkoski, "Herbicide effects of essential oils", Weed Science, 50, 4, (2002), 425 - 431.

[8] W. Wannes, B. Mhamdi, B. Marzouk, "Variations in essential oil and fatty acid composition during Myrtus communis var. italica fruit maturation", Food Chemistry, 112, (2009), 621 - 626.

[9] H. Kim, E. Lee, S. Hong, "Effect of Syzygium aromaticum extract on immediate hypersensitivity in rats", Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 60, (1998), 125 - 131.

[10] V. Raina, S. Srivastava, K. Aggarwal, K. Syamasundar, S. Kumar, "Essential oil composition of Syzygium aromaticum leaf from Little Andaman, India", Flavour Fragrance Journal, 16, (2001), 334 - 336.

[11] G. Zheng, P. Kenney, L. Lam, "Sesquiterpenes from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata)", Journal of Natural Products, 55, (1992), 999 - 1003.

[12] G. Razafimamonjison, M. Jahiel, P. Ramanoelina, F. Fawbush, P. Danthu, "Effects of phenological stages on yield and composition of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum buds from Madagascar", International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2, 4, (2013), 312 - 318.

[13] E. Gaydou, R. Randriamiharisoa, "Multidimentional analysis of Gas chromatographic data, application to the differenciation of clove bud and clove stem essential oil from Madagascar", Parfumer & Flavorist, 12, (1987), 45 - 51.

[14] G. Razafimamonjison, M. Jahiel, P. Ramanoelina, F. Fawbush, P. Danthu, “Bud, leaf and stem essential oil composition of Syzygium aromaticum from Madagascar, Indonesia and Zanzibarâ€, International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3, 3, (2014), 224 – 233.

Downloads

Published

2016-02-29

Issue

Section

Articles