Structural equation modelling assessment of personal and social factors on hajj crowding among african pilgrims in Mina

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    African pilgrimage to the Mecca date back to the early years of Islam through the Sahara desert. The perception of this group of pilgrims as they embark on the sacred Mina prayer rituals directly translates to how they perceived crowding in Mina. Hajj rituals are carried out at Mina for a minimum of three days. The optimum provision and continuous improvements of the facilities for pilgrims determines how this group reacts to the crowded environment which invariably affects their psychology. This paper assesses the impacts of personal factors (control, expectation, mood and sociability) and social factors (interpersonal similarity, provision of information and activities) on crowding levels perception among pilgrim groups from African origins. A self-administered survey instrument was used in the collection of data from the African origin Hajj group totaling 156 in number. Data analysis was carried out utilizing SPSS on the descriptive data and AMOS for multivariate Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The survey instruments internal consistency, sample adequacy Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) found that the validity was within acceptable thresholds. The pilgrim groups from African origins measurement model revealed that sociability and interpersonal similarity had the highest correlation while level of perceived crowing and activities had the lowest correlation. Furthermore, for personal factors, sociability had the highest inverse impact and for social factors, interpersonal similarity. The authorities formulating policies to managing crowd levels and perception will invariably be affected by adapting these research findings to improve the Hajj experience. Subsequently, assessing several other factors, which effect Hajj pilgrims such as physical factors, provides an avenue for future research.


  • Keywords

    Crowding, Hajj, Personal, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), Social.

  • References

      [1] Baker J & Wakefield KL (2012), "How consumer shopping orientation influences perceived crowding, excitement, and stress at the mall," J. Acad. Mark. Sci. 40(6), 791-806.
      [2] Neuts B & Nijkamp P (2012), "Tourist crowding perception and acceptability in cities. An Applied Modelling Study on Bruges," Ann. Tour. Res. 39(4), 2133-2153.
      [3] Tseng Y, Kyle GT, Shafer CS, Graefe AR & Bradle TA (2008), "Exploring The Crowding-Satisfaction Relationship Between Day And Overnight Users In The Lower Colorado River Basin, Texas," techreport.
      [4] Berlonghi AE (1995), "Understanding and planning for different spectator crowds," Saf. Sci. 18, 239-247.
      [5] Kim D, Lee CK & Sirgy MJ (2015), "Examining the Differential Impact of Human Crowding Versus Spatial Crowding on Visitor Satisfaction at a Festival," J. Travel {&} Tour. Mark., no. July, 1-20.
      [6] Kendrick VL & Haslam RA (2010) "The user experience of crowds?: a human factors challenge," in Human Fac- tors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, pp. 2000-2004.
      [7] Gifford R (2007), Environmental psychology: Principles and practice. Optimal books Colville, WA.
      [8] Alnabulsi H & Drury J (2014), "Social identification moderates the effect of crowd density on safety at the Hajj," 111(25), 1-6.
      [9] Lee H & Graefe AR (2003), "Crowding at an arts festival?: extending crowding models to the frontcountry," 24, 1-11.
      [10] Shelby B, Vaske JJ & Heberlein TA (1989), "Comparative analysis of crowding in multiple locations: Results from fifteen years of research," Leis. Sci. 11(4), 269-291.
      [11] Al-kodmany K (2013), "Crowd Management and Urban Design?: New Scientific Approaches," Urban Des. Int. 18(4), 282-295.
      [12] Al-Qahtaanee SS (1997), A Manual on the Rites of Hajj.
      [13] United Nations (2015), "World Population 2015," New York.
      [14] Yim BCK, Wan WE & Zou W (2015), "An empirical investigation of how interpersonal similarity influences customers' crowding perceptions in services contexts," 44th Annual Conference of the European Marketing Academy, EMAC 2015. Leuven, Belgium.
      [15] Rustemli A (1992), "Crowding effects of density and interpersonal distance," J. Soc. Psychol. 132(1), 51-58.
      [16] Easterbrook MJ & Vignoles VL (2015), "When friendship formation goes down the toilet: Design features of shared accommodation influence interpersonal bonds and well-being," Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 54(1), 125-139.
      [17] Loi KI & Pearce PL (2015), "Exploring perceived tensions arising from tourist behaviors in a Chinese context," J. Travel Tour. Mark. 32(1-2), 65-79.
      [18] Sun YY & Budruk M (2015), "The moderating effect of nationality on crowding perception, its antecedents, and coping behaviours: A study of an urban heritage site in Taiwan," Curr. Issues Tour. 1-19.
      [19] Mackinnon SP, Jordan CH & Wilson AE (2011), "Birds of a feather sit together: Physical similarity predicts seating choice," Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 37(7), 879-892.
      [20] Kwon H, Ha S & Im H (2015), "The impact of perceived similarity to other customers on shopping mall satisfaction," J. Retail. Consum. Serv. 1-6.
      [21] Six B, Martin P & Pecher M (1983), "A cultural comparism of perceived crowding and discomfort: the united states and west germany," J. Psychol. 114(1), 63-67.
      [22] Szuster BW, Needham MD & McClure BP (2011), "Scuba Diver Perceptions and Evaluations of Crowding Underwater," Tour. Mar. Environ. 7(3), 153-165.
      [23] Langer EJ & Saegert S (1977), "Crowding and cognitive control.," J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 35(3), 175.
      [24] Gillam T, Lyons G & McDonald M (1999), "Traveller information systems: What do end-users really want?," in Proceedings of the European Transport Conference on Traffic Management, Safety & Intelligent Transport Systems, 329-341.
      [25] Cessford G (1997), "Visitor satisfactions, impact perceptions and attitudes toward management options on the Tongariro Circuit Track," Sci. Conserv. 76, 20.
      [26] Brown A, Kappes J & Marks J (2013), "Mitigating Theme Park Crowding with Incentives and Information on Mobile Devices," J. Travel Res. 52(4), 426-436.
      [27] Dias ES, Edwardes AJ & Purves RS (2007), "Analysing and aggregating visitor tracks in a protected area," 5th Int. Symp. Spat. Data Qual. no. 2005, 265-281.
      [28] Bai B (2013), "Factors associated with patient satisfaction in Emergency Department in Mainland China , Hong Kong and Taiwan?: A systematic review," The University of Hong Kong.
      [29] HSE (2000), "Managing crowds safely," HSE Books. Health and Safety Executive IND(G)142L C1000 293, Sheffield, 1-63.
      [30] Kalisch D & Klaphake A (2007), "Visitors ' satisfaction and perception of crowding in a German National Park?: a case study on the island of Hallig Hooge," For. Snow Landsc. Res., vol. 122, no. 1/2, 109-122.
      [31] Kalisch D (2012), "Relevance of crowding effects in a coastal National Park in Germany: Results from a case study on Hamburger Hallig," J. Coast. Conserv. 16(4), 531-541.
      [32] Bryon J & Neuts B (2007), "Crowding and the tourist experience in an urban environment: a structural equation modeling approach," techreport.
      [33] Vaske JJ & Shelby LB (2008), "Crowding as a Descriptive Indicator and an Evaluative Standard: Results from 30 Years of Research," Leisure Sciences,. 30(2),. 111-126.
      [34] Rathnayake RMW (2015), "How does 'crowding' affect visitor satisfaction at the Horton Plains National Park in Sri Lanka?," Tour. Manag. Perspect. 16, 129-138.
      [35] Mehta R (2013), "Understanding perceived retail crowding: A critical review and research agenda," J. Retail. Consum. Serv. 20(6), 642-649.
      [36] Eder R & Arnberger A (2012), "The influence of place attachment and experience use history on perceived depreciative visitor behavior and crowding in an urban National Park," Environ. Manage. 50(4), 566-580.
      [37] Needham MD, Rollins RB & Wood CJB (2004), "Site-specific encounters, norms and crowding of summer visitors at alpine ski areas," Int. J. Tour. Res. 6(6), 421-437.
      [38] Chavez DJ (1993), "Visitor perceptions of crowding and discrimination at two national forests in southern California," Res. Pap. Pacific Southwest Res. Station. USDA For. Serv. 216(3).
      [39] Ha Y & Lee Y (2016), "Effects of Spatial Crowding on Store Loyalty?: Roles of Store Size," Univers. J. Psychol. 4(3), 123-131.
      [40] Lawler EE (1973), Motivation in Work Organisations. California: Brooks/Cole.
      [41] Tseng YP, Kyle GT, Shafer CS, Graefe AR, Bradle TA & Schuett MA (2009), "Exploring the crowding-satisfaction relationship in recreational boating," Environ. Manage. 43(3), 496-507.
      [42] Machleit K, Eroglu S & Mantel S (2000), "Perceived Retail Crowding and Shopping Satisfaction: What Modifies This Relationship?," J. Consum. Psychol. 9(1), 29-42.
      [43] Schreyer R & Roggenbuck JW (1983), "The influence of experience expectations on crowding perceptions and social?psychological carrying capacities," Leis. Sci. 1(4), 373-394.
      [44] Shelby B, Heberlein TA, Vaske JJ & Alfano G (1983), "Expectations, preferences, and feeling crowded in recreation activities?," Leis. Sci. 6(1), 1-14.
      [45] White RW (1959), "Motivation reconsidered: the concept of competence," Psychol. Rev. 66(5), 297.
      [46] Thompson SC (1981), "Will it hurt less if i can control it? A complex answer to a simple question," Psychol. Bull. 90(1), 89.
      [47] Proshansky HM, Ittelson WH & Rivlin LG (1970), "Freedom of choice and behavior in a physical setting," Environ. Psychol. Man his Phys. setting. 173-183.
      [48] Miller SM (1979), "Controllability and human stress: Method, evidence and theory," Behav. Res. Ther. 17(4), 287-304.
      [49] Aiello J, Headly L & Thompson D (1978), "Effects of crowding on the elderly: A preliminary investigation," J. Popul. Behav. Soc. Environ. Issues. 1(4), 283-297.
      [50] Bateson JE (1985) "Self-service consumer: An exploratory study," J. Retail.
      [51] Hui MK & Bateson JEG (1991),"Perceived control and the effects of crowding and consumer choice on the service experience," J. Consum. Res. 18(2), 174-184.
      [52] Baum A, Fisher JD & Solomon SK (1981), "Type of information, familiarity, and the reduction of crowding stress," J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 40(1), 11.
      [53] Dion D (2004), "Personal control and coping with retail crowding," Int. J. Serv. Ind. Manag. 15(3), 250-263.
      [54] Palcu J, Kleber J, Florack A, Palcu J, Kleber J & Yoon C (2015), "How Store Employees Influence Consumer Choice Under Retail Crowding - a Social Overload Perspective," Adv. Consum. Res. 43, 658-659.
      [55] Li JT, Kim J & Lee SY (2009), "An empirical examination of perceived retail crowding, emotions , and retail outcomes," Serv. Ind. J. 29(5), 37-41.
      [56] Anderson CA, Deuser WE & Deneve KM (1995), "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin," Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 21(5), 434-448.
      [57] Teik DOL, Hao GY, Juniaty I, Lirn JW, Jhet, Rick LA & Gullantheivello S (2015), "Investigation of Mall Atmosphere in Experiential Shopping During Holiday Season: A case of Malaysian Shopping Malls," Int. Rev. Bus. Res. Pap. 11(1), 133-146.
      [58] Tabish SZS & Jha KN (2012), "Success traits for a construction project," J. Constr. Eng. Manag. 138(10), 1131-1138.
      [59] Enegbuma WI (2016), "Factors Affecting Building Information Modelling Adoption by Malaysian Consultants and Contractors," PhD Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
      [60] Enegbuma WI, Ologbo AC, Aliagha GU & Ali KN (2015), "Partial least square analysis of building information modelling impact in Malaysia," Int. J. Prod. Lifecycle Manag. 8(4), 311-329.
      [61] Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ & Anderson RE (2013), Multivariate Data Analysis.
      [62] Enegbuma WI, Aliagha GU & Ali KN (2015), "Effects of perceptions on BIM adoption in Malaysian construction industry," J. Teknol. 77(15), 69-75.
      [63] Beglar D & Nemoto T (2014), "Developing Likert-scale questionnaires.," JALT2013 Conf. Proc. 1-8.
      [64] Awang Z, Afthanorhan A & Asri MAM (2015), "Parametric and Non Parametric Approach in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM): The Application of Bootstrapping," Mod. Appl. Sci. 9(9), 58-67.
      [65] Xiong B, Skitmore M & Xia B (2015), "A critical review of structural equation modeling applications in construction research," Autom. Constr. 49, 59-70.
      [66] Shelby B (1980), "Crowding models for backcountry recreation," Land Econ. 56(1), 43-55.
      [67] Shelby SKB (2011), "Effects of Information on Perceived Crowding and Encounter Norms," 876-884.
      [68] Shuib MA, Rahman SA & Mohd ND (2013), "Assessing Psychosocial Elements of Crowds during Hajj: Scale Construction and Content Validation," in 5th National Seminar on Hajj Best Practices on Crowd and Health Issues.
      [69] Haghighati R & Hassan A (2013), "Modelling the Flow of Crowd during Tawaf at Masjid Al-Haram," J. Mek. 36, 2-18.




Article ID: 10970
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i2.10.10970

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.