Tribological behavior of thin film coating-a review

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    An automotive industry sectors are facing major challenges to produce materials of high hardness, low wear rate and corrosive resistant due to international intrinsic norms. Scientist and researchers are developing new materials with different surface properties to come over the international intrinsic norms and hence, they are trying to enhance tribological behavior and increase the life of automotive parts, make the parts corrosive resistant. Therefore, it has become essential to explore the new combinations of coating materials. A tribome-chanical effect of hard metal (WC-12 % Co and Cr3C2-25 % NiCr) coating on the cast iron and steel substrate were compared. Micro hardness, porosity, microstructure, corrosion and economical factor were compared and concluded that the hardness of WC-12%Co & Cr3C2-25NiCr coated on mild steel substrate were comparatively superior but the Cr3C2-NiCr coated cast iron substrate was better over WC-12%Co because it was more economical and corrosive resistant and competitive wear characteristics and as the temperature and load are increased, the Cr3C2-NiCr shows excellent wear resistances.

     

     


  • Keywords


    Hard Metals; Micro Hardness; Porosity; SEM; Microstructure; Environment.

  • References


      [1] Kamlesh V. Chauhana*, Sushant K. Rawala ‘A review paper on tribological and mechanical properties of ternary nitride based coatings’Procedia Technology 14 (2014) 430 – 437.

      [2] Singh, Shailesh Kumar, et al. "Wear behavior of chromium nitride coating in dry condition at lower sliding velocity and load." The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (2017): 1-11.

      [3] Lorenzo-Martin C, Ajayi O, Erdemir A, Fenske G.R, Wei R. Effect of microstructure and thickness on the friction and wear behaviour of CrN coatings. Wear; 2013. p. 963-971. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2013.02.005.

      [4] L.-M. Berger, Hard but slippery-titaniumhardmetal coatings have industrial potential, met. Powder Rep. 60 (5) (2005) 28 (29, 31).

      [5] L.-M. Berger, Application of hardmetals as thermal spray coatings, Int J RefractMet HardMater (2014.

      [6] Barbezat Gérard Application of thermal spraying in the automobile industry Surface & Coatings Technology 201 (2006) 2028–2031 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.04.050.

      [7] Dayan, A.D., Paine, A. J.: Mechanisms of chromium toxicity, carcinogenicity and allergenicity: review of the literature from 1985 to 2000. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 20, 439–451 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1191/096032701682693062.

      [8] Von Burg, R., Liu, D.: Chromium and hexavalent chromium. J Appl. Toxicol. 13, 225–230 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.2550130315.

      [9] Costa, M.: Toxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr (VI) in animal models and humans. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 27, 431–442 (1997). https://doi.org/10.3109/10408449709078442.

      [10] Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. Off. J. Eur. Union1, 27, pp. 19–37 (2003).

      [11] Bolelli, G., Cannillo, V., Lusvarghi, L., Manfredini, T.: Wearbehavior of thermally sprayed ceramic oxide coatings. Wear 261, 1298–1315 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2006.03.023.

      [12] Picas, J.A., Forn, A., Mattha¨us, G.: HVOF coatings as an alternative to hard chrome for pistons and valves. Wear 261, 477–484 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2005.12.005.

      [13] Kirsten, A., Oechsle, M., Moll, R. F.: Carbide containing materials for hard chromium replacement by HVOF-spraying. In: Proceeding of the International Thermal Spray Conference ITSC 2005, Basel, 2–4 May 2005, and pp. 957–962. DVS-Verlag, Basel, Switzerland, Du¨sseldorf, (2005). CD (ISBN 3-87155-793-5).

      [14] Bolelli, G., Cannillo, V., Lusvarghi, L., Soragni, E., Loreto, A., Valente, T.: A comprehensive characterization of industrially manufactured hard chrome platings and of thermally sprayed alternatives. In: Proceeding of the International Thermal Spray Conference ITSC 2005, Basel, 2–4 May 2005, and pp. 1456–1461. DVS-Verlag, Basel, Switzerland, Du¨sseldorf (2005). CD (ISBN 3- 87155-793-5).

      [15] Guilemany, J.M., Espallargas, N., Suegama, P.H., Benedetti, A.V., Fernandez, J.: High-velocity oxyfuel Cr3C2–NiCr replacing hard chromium coatings. J. Therm. Spray Technol. 14, 335–341 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1361/105996305X59350.

      [16] Wank, A., Schwenk, A., Wielage, B., Grund, T., Friesen, E., Pokhmurska, H.: Behavior of thermally sprayed wear protective coatings exposed to different abrasive wear conditions in comparison to hard chromium platings. In: Conf. Proc. Int. Thermal Spray Conference & Exhibition ITSC 2007, 14–16 May 2007, Beijing, China, pp. 1011–1016. ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA (2007).

      [17] P. Vuoristo, Thermal spray coating processes, in: D. Cameron (Ed.), Comprehensive Materials Processing, vol. 4, Elsevier, 2014, pp. 229–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-096532-1.00407-6.

      [18] Nitesh Vashishtha, S.G. Sapate, Abrasive wear maps for High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF) sprayed WC-12Co and Cr3C2−25NiCr coatings, Tribology International 114 (2017) 290–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2017.04.037.

      [19] Friction, lubrication, and wear technology. Materials Park, OH: ASM International, Handbook Committee; 1992.

      [20] Rasool G, Stack MM. Wear maps for TiC composite based coatings deposited on 303 Stainless steel. Tribol Int 2014; 74:93–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2014.02.002.

      [21] Hsu SM, Shen MC. Ceramic wear maps. Wear 1996; 200:154–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1648(96)07326-7.

      [22] Rasool G, Stack MM. Mapping wear mechanisms of TiC/Ti composite coating. Tribol Int 2015; 328–329:498– 508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2015.03.022.

      [23] M. Oechsle, Carbide containing spray powders and HVOF-coatings, Conf Proc 7.HVOF-Kolloquium 2006, 9–10 November 2006, Erding, Germany, Gemeinschaft Thermisches Spritzen EV, Unterschleißheim, 2006, pp. 57–62.

      [24] Stanford MK, Jain VK. Friction and wear characteristics of hard coatings. Wear 2001; 251:990-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1648(01)00719-0.

      [25] Sahraoui T, Finineche NE, Montavon G, Coddet C. Structure and wear behaviour of HVOF sprayed Cr3C2 –NiCr and WC–Co coatings. Mater Design 2003; 24:309-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-3069(03)00059-1.

      [26] Shabanaa*,M.M.M. Sarcar b, K.N.S.Sumanc,S Kamaluddind Tribological and Corrosion behavior of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co,NiCrBSi and Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings and analysis using Design ofExperiments, Materials Today: Proceedings 2 ( 2015 ) 2654 – 2665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2015.07.227.

      [27] Sharma S. Parametric study of abrasive wear of Co–CrC based flame sprayed coatings by response surface methodology. Tribol Int 2014; 75:39–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2014.03.004.

      [28] Roy M, Rao CVS, Rao DS, Sundararajan G. Abrasive wear behavior of detonation sprayed WC-Co coatings on mild steel. Surf Eng 1999; 15(2):129-36. https://doi.org/10.1179/026708499101516470.

      [29] Sapate SG, Roy M. Solid particle erosion of thermal sprayed coatings. In: Thermal sprayed coatings and their tribological performances. IGI Global Publications 2015; 193- 226. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-7489-9.ch007.

      [30] Mateen A, Saha GC, Khan TI, Khalid FA. Tribological behavior of HVOF sprayed near-nanostructured and microstructured WC- 17wt.% Co coatings. Surf Coat Technol2011; 206:1077-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.07.075.

      [31] T. Gong, P. Yao, X. Zuo, Z. Zhang, Y. Xiao, L. Zhao, et al., Influence of WC carbide particle size on the microstructure and abrasive wear behavior of WC–10Co–4Cr coatings for aircraft landing gear, Wear 2016;362–363:135–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2016.05.022.

      [32] Matthews S, James B, Hyland M. High temperature erosion–oxidation of Cr3C2–NiCr thermal spray coatings under simulated turbine conditions. Corros Sci 2013; 70:203-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2013.01.030.

      [33] C.N. Machioa,, G. Akdogana, M.J. Witcombb, S. Luyckxa, Performance of WC–VC–Co thermal spray coatings in abrasion and slurry erosion tests, Wear 258 (2005) 434–442 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2004.09.033.

      [34] D.K. Shetty, I.G. Wright, J.T. Stropki, Slurry erosion of WC–Co cermets and ceramics, Trans. ASLE 28 (1) (1984) 123–133. https://doi.org/10.1080/05698198508981604.

      [35] J. Zinyana, S. Broccardo, S. Hamar-Thibault, L.A. Cornish, M.J. Witcomb, C.H. Allibert, S. Luyckx, Effect of composition on the (V, W)C constitution in V-W-C-Co alloys, in: Plansee Proceedings, Austria, 2001, pp. 291–29.

      [36] S. Broccardo, An investigation into the corrosion resistance of WC–VC–Co hard metals, M.Sc. Dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, 2003.

      [37] B. Lotfi a, P.H. Shipway a,, D.G. McCartney a, H. Edris b, Abrasive wear behaviour of Ni(Cr)–TiB2 coatings deposited by HVOF spraying of SHS-derived cermets powders, Wear 254 (2003) 340–349 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1648(03)00014-0.

      [38] J. He, M. Ice, E.J. Lavernia, Synthesis of nanostructured Cr3C2– 25(Ni20Cr) coatings, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 31 (2000) 555–564. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-000-0290-0.

      [39] B. Champange, S. Dallaire, Wear resistance of TiB2–Fe cermets, in: Proceedings of the International Conference.

      [40] B. Normand, V. Fervel, C. Coddet, V. Nikitine, Surf. Coat. Technol. 123 (2000) 278. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0257-8972(99)00532-0.

      [41] O.P. Solonenko, M.F. Zhukov, Thermal Plasma and New Materials Technology, Cambridge Interscience Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 1994, pp. 509 – 513

      [42] Shan-Ping Lu, Oh-Yang Kwon, Surf. Coat. Technol. 153 (2002) 40 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0257-8972(01)01555-9.

      [43] B. Mitin, Poroshkovaia Metalurgia I Napilenia Pokritia, Metalurgia, Moscow, 1987 (in Russian).

      [44] A. Conde, F. Zibiri, J. Damborenea, Mater. Sci. Eng., A 334 (2002) 233. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(01)01808-1.

      [45] Y.S. Borisov, A.L. Borisova, Plazmennye Poroshkovye Pokritiia, Tehnika, Moscow, 1986 (in Russian).

      [46] Y.S. Borisov, Gazotermicheskie Pokritia iz Poroshkovyh Materialov, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1987 (in Russian).

      [47] M.F. Ashby, D.R.H. Jones, Engineering Materials: 2. an Introduction to Microstructures, Processing and Design, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1986, p. 4.

      [48] H. Skuleva, S. Malinovb, W. Shac,T, P.A.M. Basheer ‘Microstructural and mechanical properties of nickel- base plasma sprayed coatings on steel and cast iron substrates’Surface & Coatings Technology 197 (2005) 177– 184

      [49] H. Skulev, S. Malinov, P.A.M. Basheer, W. Sha, Surf. Coat. Technol. 185 (2004) 18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2003.12.012.

      [50] H. Skulev, S. Malinov, P.A.M. Basheer, W. Sha, Surf. Coat. Technol. 185 (2004) 18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2003.12.012.

      [51] J.R. Davis (Ed.), Surface Hardening of Steels: Understanding the Basics, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 2002.

      [52] Sulzer Metco, an Introduction to Thermal Spray, Issue 4 • c 2013 Sulzer Metco.

      [53] H.M. Ortner, P. Ettmayer, H. Kolaska, The history of the technological progress of hardmetals, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater.44 (2014) 148–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2013.07.014.

      [54] Robert C. Tucker, Jr., Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc. Thermal Spray Coatings, ASM Handbook, Volume 5: Surface Engineering C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, and F.A. Smidt, Jr., editors, p 497-509

      [55] Haibo Wang a,c, HuiLi b, HongbinZhu b, FangjieCheng a,n, DongpoWang,Zhuoxin‘AcomparativestudyofplasmasprayedTiB2–NiCr andCr3C2–NiCr compositecoatings, Materials Letters153(2015)110–113.

      [56] Xiaoben Qi, Shigen Zhu, Hao Ding, Zhengkun Zhu, Zhibing Han, Microstructure and wear behaviors of WC–12%Co coating on ductile iron by electric contact surface strengthening, Applied Surface Science 282 (2013) 672– 679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.06.032.

      [57] Friction, lubrication, and wear technology. Materials Park, OH: ASM International, Handbook Committee; 1992.

      [58] Picas JA, Forn A, Mattaus G. HVOF coatings as an alternative to hard chrome for pistons and valves. Wear 2006; 261:477-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2005.12.005.

      [59] C. X. Li, the University of Birmingham, UK, Wear Testing and Wear Measurement, Surface Engineering.

      [60] Shabanaa*, M.M.M. Sarcar b, K.N.S.Sumanc, S Kamaluddind. ‘Tribological and Corrosion behavior of HVOF Sprayed WC- Co,NiCrBSi and Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings and analysis using Design of Experiments’ Materials Today: Proceedings 2 ( 2015 ) 2654 – 2665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2015.07.227 ...

      [61] Singh, Shailesh Kumar, et al. "Influence of Nano-particle on the Wear behaviour of Thin Film Coatings a Review." International Journal of Applied Engineering Research 13.6 (2018): 4053-4058.

      [62] DING Zhang-xiong1, CHEN Wei1, and WANG Qun2 ‘Resistance of cavitations erosion of multimodal WC-12Co coatings sprayed by HVOF’Received 8 December 2010; accepted 1 August 2011.

      [63] F. Rastegar *, D.E. Richardson ‘Alternative to chrome HVOF cermets coatings for high horse power diesel engines1’Surface and CoatingTse chnolog9y 0(1997) 1 56-163.

      [64] L.-M. Berger, Hardmetals as thermal spray coatings, Powder Metall. 50 (3) (2007) 205–214. https://doi.org/10.1179/174329007X246078.

      [65] L. Pawlowski, the Science and Engineering of Thermal Spray Coatings, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2008.

      [66] Hsu SM, Shen MC. Ceramic wear maps. Wear 1996; 200:154–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1648(96)07326-7.

      [67] M. Jones, A.J. Horlock, P.H. Shipway∗, D.G. McCartney, J.V. WoodA comparison of the abrasive wear behaviour of HVOF sprayed titanium carbide- and titanium boride-based cermet coatings ,Wear 251 (2001) 1009–1016. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1648(01)00702-5.

      [68] Lalit Thakura, N. Aroraa,, R. Jayaganthanb, R. Soodc An investigation on erosion behavior of HVOF sprayed WC–CoCr coatings Applied Surface Science 258 (2011) 1225– 1234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.09.079.

      [69] B. Uyulgana,*, H. Cetinela, I. Ozdemira, C. Tekmena, S.C. Okumusb, E. Celika Friction and wear properties of Mo coatings on cast- iron substrates Surface and Coatings Technology 174 –175 (2003) 1082–1088.

      [70] Sultan Al-Mutairi a, M.S.J. Hashmi a, B.S. Yilbas b, J. Stokes a Microstructural characterization of HVOF/plasma thermal spray of micro/nanoWC–12%Co powders Surface & Coatings Technology 264 (2015) 175–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.12.050.

      [71] S ˇ.Houdkova´ • F. Zaha´lka • M. Kasˇparova´ • L. -M. BergerComparative Study of Thermally Sprayed Coatings under Different Types of Wear Conditions for Hard Chromium Replacement.

      [72] L.-M. Berger a,S. Saaro a , T. Naumann a , M. Wiener a , V. Weihnacht a , S. Thiele b , J. Suchánek Microstructure and properties of HVOF-sprayed chromium alloyed WC–Co and WC–Ni coatings Surface & Coatings Technology 202 (2008) 4417–4421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2008.04.019.

      [73] V. Matikainen1*, G. Bolelli2, H. Koivuluoto1, P. Sassatelli2, L. Lusvarghi2, P. Vuoristo1 Sliding wear behaviour of HVOF and HVOF sprayed Cr3C2-based coatings S0043-1648(17)30566-5.

      [74] Hamed Asgari, Gobinda Saha , Mohsen Mohammadi, Tribological behavior of nanostructured high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal sprayed WC-17NiCr coatings, Ceramics International xx (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx.

      [75] O. Maranhoa, D. Rodriguesb, M. Boccalini Jr. b, A. Sinatorac Mass loss and wear mechanisms of HVOF-sprayed multi-component white cast iron coatings. Wear 274– 275 (2012) 162– 167.

      [76] L. Pawlowski, in: The Science and Engineering of Thermal Spray Coatings, John Wiley and Sons, 1995, p. 211.

      [77] L. Pawlowski, in: The Science and Engineering of Thermal Spray Coatings, John Wiley and Sons, 1995, p. 182.

      [78] Nitesh Vashishtha, S.G. Sapate, Pranay Bagde, A.B. Rathod,Effect of heat treatment on friction and abrasive wear behavior of WC- 12Co and Cr3C2-25NiCr coatings, S0301-679X(17)30477-2.

      [79] Thiele S, Sempf k, Roessler KJ, Berger LM, Spatzier J, Thermophysical and microstructural studies on thermally sprayed tungsten carbide-cobalt coatings. J Therm Spray Technol 2011; 20:358-65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11666-010-9558-0.

      [80] Roy M, Pauschitz A, Polak R, Franek F. Comparative evaluation of ambient temperature friction behaviour of thermal sprayed Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr) coatings with conventional and non-crystalline grains. Tribol Int 2006; 39:29-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2004.11.009.

      [81] Kumar, Dalip, Qasim Murtaza, and R. C. Singh. "Sliding wear behavior of aluminum alloy coating prepared by two-wire electric arc spray process." The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 85.1-4 (2016): 237-252.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 11788
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i3.11788




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.