Distribution and ecology of Rafflesia in Royal belum state park, Perak, Malaysia

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    Rafflesia, the biggest flowers in the world are considered as majestic and are made as ecotourism icons for several places in the South East Asia. Currently, a total of 34 species of Rafflesia were recorded in this region. 7 species of Rafflesia are found in Peninsular Malaysia alone. This study was executed in Royal Belum State Park in the state of Perak. An updated on distribution of Rafflesia and its ecology are provided. The Rafflesia population was mapped using Global Positioning System [GPS]. While the size of Rafflesia host-plant was measured with the measuring tape and the amount of rainfall was obtained from the Meteorological Department of Malaysia. During this study, there were 2 species of Rafflesia encountered in Royal Belum State Park, namely Rafflesia cantleyi Solms-Laubach and Rafflesia kerri Meijer. The species were recorded at X-Ray trail, Sg. Gadong, and Sg. Kooi. A total of 8 populations were set up from these locations. It was found that the population and the distribution decreased in accordance with the habitat interruption by human intervention and natural factors such as wildlife trampling on the immature buds. Besides, it was found that the number of Rafflesia buds increases with the class size for host-plant of Rafflesia with coefficients of determination of R2=0.9866. However, various physiological and environmental factors were taken into consideration in efforts of conserving this unique flower. This study is important in order to preserve the population of Rafflesia at Royal Belum State Park.

     

     


  • Keywords


    Rafflesia distribution; ecology; Peninsular Malaysia

  • References


      [1] Kuijt J. The Biology of Parasitic Flowering Plants: University of California Press; 1969 October 1, 1969. 368 p.

      [2] Nickrent DL. Parasitic Plants of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Parasitic Plants of the World. . 2002. p. 7-27.

      [3] Akhriadi P, HA. Kiswanto, A. Taufiq, D. Alfajri & R. Kadirman. Assessment of Conservation Status of Rafflesia in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Padang: Rafflesia Monitoring Team [RMT] Padang, 2010.

      [4] Wan Zakaria WNF, Ahmad Puad AS, Geri C, Zainudin R, Latiff A. Tetrastigma diepenhorstii [Miq.] Latiff [Vitaceae], a New Host of Rafflesia tuan-mudae Becc. [Rafflesiaceae] in Borneo. Journal of Botany. 2016:1-6.

      [5] Mokhtar N, Hamzah Z, Munirah MS, Arifin WNNW, Latiff A. Tetrastigma hookeri [Laws.] Planch.[Vitaceae], a host plant for Rafflesia kerri Meijer in Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal. 2016;68 No 1 & 2:33-9.

      [6] Thulaja NR. NLB National Library Board Singapore Rafflesia 2-25 Singapore2003. Available from: http:// www.nl.sg/.

      [7] Kanchanapoom T, Kamel MS, Picheansoonthon C, Luecha P, Kasai R, Yamasaki K. Hydrolyzable tannins and phenylpropanoid from Rafflesia kerrii Meijer [Rafflesiaceae]. Journal of Natural Medicines. 2007;61[4]:478-9.

      [8] Nais J, Wilcock CC. The Rafflesia conservation incentive scheme in Sabah, Malaysia, Borneo. Sabah Parks Nature Journal 1998;1:9-17.

      [9] Meijer W, Riedl H, Huang TC, Saunders RMK, Barlow BA, Kalkman C, et al. Flora Malesiana. Series 1, Spermatophyta. Volume 13, Rafflesiaceae, Boraginaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Illiciaceae & Schisandraceae, Loranthaceae & Viscaceae: Rijksherbarium; 1997.

      [10] Meijer W. Saving the World's Largest Flower. National Geographic. 1985;168[1]:0.

      [11] Ismail G. Conservation of the giant Rafflesia in Sabah, Malaysia. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 1988;3[12]:316-7.

      [12] Beaman R, Decker P, Beaman J. Pollination of Rafflesia [Rafflesiaceae]. American Journal of Botany. 1988[75]:1148-62.

      [13] Bänziger H. Stench and fragrance: unique pollination lure of Thailand's largest flower, Rafflesia kerrii Meijer. Nat Hist Bull Siam Soc. 1991;[39]:19-52.

      [14] Bänziger H. Pollinaion of flowering oddity: Rhizanthes zippeli [Blume] Spach [Rafflesiaceae]. Nat Hist Bull Siam Soc. 1996;[44]:113-42.

      [15] Nais J. Rafflsia of the world. First Edition ed. Malaysia: Natural History Publications [Borneo]; 2001 January 1, 2001.

      [16] Nais J, Baikan B, Sinun W. Nature conservation: striking a balance between conservation and development for Sabah beyond 2000. Sabah Beyond. 2000:181-202.

      [17] Bänziger H. Studies on the superlative deceiver: Rhizantes Dumortier [Rafflesiaceae]. Bulletin of the British Ecological Society. 2001;32[3]:36-9.

      [18] Bänziger H. Studies on hitherto unknown fruits and seeds of some Rafflesiaceae, and a method to manually pollinate their flowers for research and conservation. Linzer Biology Beitr. 2004;36[2]:1175-98.

      [19] Hansen B, & Bänziger, H. Unmasking the real identity of Sapria poilanei Gagnepain emend., and description of Sapria ram sp.n. [Rafflesiaceae]. Nat Hist Bull Siam Soc. 1997;[45]:149-70.

      [20] Bãnziger H, Pape T. Flowers, faeces and cadavers: natural feeding and laying habits of flesh flies in Thailand [Diptera: Sarcophagidae, Sarcophaga spp.]. Journal of Natural History. 2004;38[13]:1677-94.

      [21] Barkman TJ, Seok-Hong Lim, Kamarudin Mat Salleh, Nais J. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world's largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2004;101[3]:787-92.

      [22] Nickrent DL, Blarer A, Yin-Long Q, Vidal-Russell R, Anderson FE. Phylogenetic inference in Rafflesiales: the influence of rate heterogeneity and horizontal gene transfer. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2004;4:40-17.

      [23] Takhtajan A, Meyer N, Kosenko V. Pollen morphology and classification in Rafflesiaceae. 1985;s.1. Bot Zurn. [Moscow and Lenigrad][70]:153-62.

      [24] Barkman TJ, Bendiksby M, Lim S-H, Salleh KM, Nais J, Madulid D, et al. Accelerated Rates of Floral Evolution at the Upper Size Limit for Flowers. Current Biology. 2008;18[19]:1508-13.

      [25] Nikolov LA, Tomlinson PB, Manickam S, Endress PK, Kramer EM, Davis CC. Holoparasitic Rafflesiaceae possess the most reduced endophytes and yet give rise to the world's largest flowers. Annals of Botany. 2014;114[2]:233-42.

      [26] Blume CL. Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indie: Batavia :Ter Lands Drukkerij,1825-1826.; 1825.

      [27] Jubil M. Kajian ekologi dan taksonomi Rafflesia di Sabah [Unpublished undergraduate thesis], Jabatan Biologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Kampus Sabah, Kota Kinabalu. 1984.

      [28] Wong M, Latiff A. Rafflesias of Peninsular Malaysia. Nature Malaysiana. 1994;19[3]:84-8.

      [29] Siti Munirah MY. Rafflesia blooms in Royal Belum. Conservation Malaysia A Bulletin Supporting Plant and Animal Conservation in Malaysia. 2012[No.16].

      [30] Mursidawati S, Ngatari, Irdawati, Cardinal S, Kusumawati R. Ex situ conservation of Rafflesia patma Blume [Rafflesiaceae] – an endange ed emblematic parasitic species from indonesia. The Journal of Botanic Garden Horticulture. 2015;No.13:99-109.

      [31] Barcelona JF, Pelser PB, Balete DS, Co LL. Taxonomy, ecology, and conservation status of Philippine Rafflesia [Rafflesiaceae]. Blumea - Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants. 2009;54[1]:77-93.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 13335
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i2.29.13335




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.