The Study of Brown Rice Starch Effect On Hydroxyapatite Composites


  • N F. Mohd Nasir
  • A Sucinda
  • E M Cheng
  • M S. Abdul Majid
  • N A.M. Amin
  • Robbi Rahim
  • M Jusoh
  • M F. Abdul Khalid



Brown rice, Starch, Hydroxyapatite, Bone tissue scaffold


The fabrication of starch-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds was conducted previously by using corn, tapioca and rice. Here, local brown rice was chosen as the source of starch since different type of rice may give different outcome of in term of the scaffold’s materials characteristics. The main aim of this study is to obtain a brown rice starch-hydroxyapatite (HA) composite scaffolds that could imitate the structure and the characteristics of a natural bone. The fabrication process involved solvent casting and particulate leaching method which using NaCl as a porogen agent. Four ratios of starch-HA were fabricated with concentration of starch 50wt%, 60wt%, 70wt% and 80wt%. Afterward, the effects of the brown rice starch on the scaffolds were investigated by water absorption test and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Here, only 50wt% and 60wt% ratio of starch-HA can be used to fabricate tissue scaffolds using solvent casting and particulate leaching method. Hence, the 60wt% ratio scaffolds has the highest water absorption of all and the pore’s size observed through SEM corresponded to this. The FTIR also shows there are more interactions between Brown Rice starch and HA for the 60wt% ratio.




[1] M. R. Roslan, N. F. M. Nasir, E. M. Cheng, and N. A. M. Amin, “Tissue engineering scaffold based on starch: A review,†in 2016 International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, and Optimization Techniques (ICEEOT), 2016, pp. 1857–1860.

[2] S. Aryza, M. Irwanto, Z. Lubis, A. P. U. Siahaan, R. Rahim, and M. Furqan, “A Novelty Design Of Minimization Of Electrical Losses In A Vector Controlled Induction Machine Drive,†IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 300, p. 012067, 2018.

[3] N. M. M. Riza Roslana, N.F. Mohd Nasirb, E.M. Chengc, “The Characterization of nanoHA-Balik Wangi Rice Starch Tissue Engineering Scaffold The Characterization of nanoHA-Balik Wangi Rice Starch Tissue Engineering Scaffold,†Int. J. Mech. mechatronics Eng., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 36–41, 2016.

[4] N. A. F. M. Hori, N. F. M. Nasir, E. M. Cheng, and N. A. M. Amin, “The Study of Glutinous Starch-Chitosan Blend as a Biomedical Material,†Int. Res. J. Eng. Sci., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 116–122, 2017.

[5] M. R. Roslan, N. F. M. Nasir, E. M. Cheng, and N. Mamat, “Preliminary characterization of nanoHA-Bubuk Wangi rice starch tissue scaffold,†in 2016 International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, and Optimization Techniques (ICEEOT), 2016, pp. 1560–1564.

[6] N. A. F. M. Hori, N. F. M. Nasir, N. A. M. Amin, E. M. Cheng, and S. N. Sohaimi, “The fabrication and characterization of Hydroxyapatite-Ubi gadong starch based tissue engineering scaffolds,†in 2016 IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES), 2016, pp. 220–225.

[7] J. Sundaram, T. D. Durance, and R. Wang, “Porous scaffold of gelatin–starch with nanohydroxyapatite composite processed via novel microwave vacuum drying,†Acta Biomater., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 932–942, Jul. 2008.

[8] N. Zhu and X. Che, “Biofabrication of Tissue Scaffolds,†in Advances in Biomaterials Science and Biomedical Applications, InTech, 2013.

[9] C.-J. Liao, C.-F. Chen, J.-H. Chen, S.-F. Chiang, Y.-J. Lin, and K.-Y. Chang, “Fabrication of porous biodegradable polymer scaffolds using a solvent merging/particulate leaching method,†J. Biomed. Mater. Res., vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 676–681, Mar. 2002.

[10] H.-W. Kim, J. C. Knowles, and H.-E. Kim, “Hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) composite coatings on hydroxyapatite porous bone scaffold for drug delivery,†Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 7–8, pp. 1279–1287, Mar. 2004.

[11] B. Nasri-Nasrabadi, M. Mehrasa, M. Rafienia, S. Bonakdar, T. Behzad, and S. Gavanji, “Porous starch/cellulose nanofibers composite prepared by salt leaching technique for tissue engineering,†Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 108, pp. 232–238, Aug. 2014.

[12] N. Sultana and T. H. Khan, “Water Absorption and Diffusion Characteristics of Nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) and Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate-) Based Composite Tissue Engineering Scaffolds and Nonporous Thin Films,†J. Nanomater., vol. 2013, pp. 1–8, May 2013.

[13] N. Sultana and M. Wang, “Water Uptake and Diffusion in PHBV Tissue Engineering Scaffolds and Non-porous Thin Films,†Proc. 2011 Int. Conf. Biomed. Eng. Technol., vol. 11, pp. 24–28, 2011.

[14] “HITACHI TM3000 Tabletop Scanning Electron Microscope.†[Online]. Available: [Accessed: 07-May-2018].

[15] S. K. Swain and S. Bhattacharyya, “Preparation of high strength macroporous hydroxyapatite scaffold,†Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 67–71, Jan. 2013.

[16] K. R. Razali et al., “The effect of gelatin and hydroxyapatite ratios on the scaffolds’ porosity and mechanical properties,†in 2014 IEEE Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES), 2014, pp. 256–259.

[17] R. Rahim, T. Afriliansyah, H. Winata, D. Nofriansyah, Ratnadewi, and S. Aryza, “Research of Face Recognition with Fisher Linear Discriminant,†IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 300, p. 012037, 2018.

[18] S. M. M. Roosa, J. M. Kemppainen, E. N. Moffitt, P. H. Krebsbach, and S. J. Hollister, “The pore size of polycaprolactone scaffolds has limited influence on bone regeneration in an in vivo model,†J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A, vol. 92A, no. 1, pp. 359–368, Jan. 2010.

[19] V. Karageorgiou and D. Kaplan, “Porosity of 3D biomaterial scaffolds and osteogenesis,†Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 27, pp. 5474–5491, Sep. 2005.

[20] E. Tsuruga, H. Takita, H. Itoh, Y. Wakisaka, and Y. Kuboki, “Pore size of porous hydroxyapatite as the cell-substratum controls BMP-induced osteogenesis.,†J. Biochem., vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 317–24, Feb. 1997.

[21] D. Wu, A. Samanta, R. K. Srivastava, and M. Hakkarainen, “Starch-Derived Nanographene Oxide Paves the Way for Electrospinnable and Bioactive Starch Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering,†Biomacromolecules, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1582–1591, May 2017.

[22] Z. Hadisi, J. Nourmohammadi, and J. Mohammadi, “Composite of porous starch-silk fibroin nanofiber-calcium phosphate for bone regeneration,†Ceram. Int., vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 10745–10754, Nov. 2015.

[23] “Infrared Spectroscopy Absorption Table - Chemistry LibreTexts.†[Online]. Available: [Accessed: 07-May-2018].

[24] G. Tripathi and B. Basu, “A porous hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone tissue engineering: Physico-mechanical and biological evaluations,†Ceram. Int., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 341–349, Jan. 2012.

[25] L. Pighinelli and M. Kucharska, “Properties and Structure of Microcrystalline Chitosan and Hydroxyapatite Composites,†J. Biomater. Nanobiotechnol., vol. 05, no. 02, pp. 128–138, Mar. 2014.