Socio-Environmental Factors and Tuberculosis: an Exploratory Spatial Analysis in Peninsular Malaysia

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    Spatial pattern of tuberculosis (TB) describes the environmental variation of the disease. Controlling the disease is not only depends on bio-medical method, but there is also a need to explicitly understand socio-environmental contexts which include the elements of people, space and time. A spatial exploration of local TB dynamic in Malaysia’s perspectives is necessary since earlier studies were limited in addressing these contexts. This paper discusses a general spatial pattern of TB distribution pattern in Peninsular Malaysia for a ten-year period from 2005 to 2014 and its general possible correlation with socio-environmental factors in 2010. Geographical information system (GIS) and correlation analysis are fundamental techniques used to explore the local pattern of TB distribution and the relationship. Data on annual TB cases and state map were collected from the Ministry of Health and the Department of Rural and Country Planning Malaysia respectively. The overall spatial pattern of TB cases has shown increasing trends and concentrating in five states, including Selangor, Johor, WPKL, Kelantan and Kedah, even though there is no specific pattern in the area. This study suggests that the majority of the cases have occurred in the urban states, having high-medium incomes and populous areas.



  • Keywords

    GIS Correlation; Peninsular Malaysia; Social Environment.; Spatial Pattern;Tuberculosis

  • References

      [1] J. Yazdani-Charati, H. Siamian, A. Kazemnejad, and V. Mohammad, “Spatial clustering of tuberculosis incidence in the north of iran.,” Glob. J. Health Sci., vol. 6, no. 6, p. 37130, Jun. 2014.

      [2] T. Wang, F. Xue, Y. Chen, Y. Ma, and Y. Liu, “The spatial epidemiology of tuberculosis in Linyi,” BMC Public Health, vol. 12, p. 885, 2012.

      [3] W. Tian-Yong, Z. Qing, L. S. Wei, Z. Han, Y. Juan, LiQin, and X. Yu, “ds Analysis of spatial distribution and influencing factors of tuberculosis in Chongqing from 2008 to 2011.pdf,” J. Shanghai Jiantong Univ., vol. 33, no. 4, p. 489, 2013.

      [4] D. W. Wardani, L. Lazuardi, Y. Mahendradhata, and H. Kusnanto, “Clustered tuberculosis incidence in Bandar Lampung, Indonesia Dyah,” WHO South-East Asia J. Public Heal., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 179–185, 2014.

      [5] M. Murray and D. Alland, “Methodological Problems in the Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis,” Am. J. Epidemiol., vol. 155, no. 6, pp. 565–571, 2002.

      [6] S. Narayanan, “Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis,” Indian J Med Res, no. October, pp. 233–247, 2004.

      [7] B. Mathema, N. E. Kurepina, P. J. Bifani, and B. N. Kreiswirth, “Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis: current insights.,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 658–85, Oct. 2006.

      [8] W. H. O. WHO, “Tuberculosis,” 2015. [Online]. Available:

      [9] M. Malaysia Ministry of Health, A. Academy of Medicine Malaysia, and M. Malaysian Thoracic Society, “Management of TB, 3rd Edition,” Malaysia Health Technology Assessment Section (MaHTAS) Medical Development Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, 2012.

      [10] J. R. Oppong, J. Mayer, and E. Oren, “The global health threat of African urban slums: the example of urban tuberculosis,” African Geogr. Rev., no. December, pp. 1–14, Apr. 2014.

      [11] D. Leite, C. Gullaci, and E. Z. Martinez, “Major Article Spatio-temporal patterns of tuberculosis incidence in Ribeirão Preto , State of São Paulo , southeast Brazil , and their relationship with social vulnerability : a Bayesian analysis,” Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 607–615, 2012.

      [12] Y. Liu, X. Li, W. Wang, Z. Li, M. Hou, Y. He, W. Wu, H. Wang, H. Liang, and X. Guo, “Investigation of space-time clusters and geospatial hot spots for the occurrence of tuberculosis in Beijing,” INT J TUBERC LUNG DIS, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 486–491, 2012.

      [13] M. E. F. Brunello, F. C. Neto, R. A. Arcêncio, R. L. de P. Andrade, G. T. Magnabosco, and T. C. S. Villa, “Areas of vulnerability to HIV / TB co-infection in Southeastern,” Rev Saúde Pública, vol. 45, no. 3, 2011.

      [14] M. L. Feske, L. D. Teeter, J. M. Musser, and E. a Graviss, “Including the third dimension: a spatial analysis of TB cases in Houston Harris County.,” Tuberculosis (Edinb)., vol. 91 Suppl 1, pp. S24-33, Dec. 2011.

      [15] M. W. Borgdorff and D. Van Soolingen, “The re-emergence of tuberculosis: what have we learnt from molecular epidemiology?,” Clin. Microbiol. Infect., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 889–901, Oct. 2013.

      [16] C.-T. Low, P.-C. Lai, W.-S. C. Tse, C.-K. Tsui, H. Lee, and P.-K. Hui, “Exploring tuberculosis by types of housing development.,” Soc. Sci. Med., vol. 87, no. 2013, pp. 77–83, Jun. 2013.

      [17] K. R. M. Rao, Y. Kant, K. Yadav, and S. Chandra, “Disease modeling – An alert system for informing environmental risk factor for TB infection,” J. Biomed. Eng. Med. Imaging, vol. 1, no. 1, 2004.


      [19] A. R. Foroushani, F. Farzianpour, and A. Tavana, “The 10-year Trend of TB Rate in West Azerbaijan Province , Iran from 2001 to 2010,” Iran. J Publ Heal., vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 778–786, 2014.

      [20] R. V Randremanana, V. Richard, F. Rakotomanana, P. Sabatier, and D. J. Bicout, “Bayesian mapping of pulmonary tuberculosis in Antananarivo, Madagascar.,” BMC Infect. Dis., vol. 10, p. 21, Jan. 2010.

      [21] E. Oren, M. Narita, C. Nolan, and J. Mayer, “Neighborhood socioeconomic position and tuberculosis transmission: a retrospective cohort study.,” BMC Infect. Dis., vol. 14, no. 1, p. 227, Jan. 2014.

      [22] A. Nolasco, J. A. Quesada, J. Moncho, I. Melchor, P. Pereyra-Zamora, N. Tamayo-Fonseca, M. A. Martínez-Beneito, and O. Zurriaga, “Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in amenable mortality in urban areas of Spanish cities, 1996-2007.,” BMC Public Health, vol. 14, p. 299, Jan. 2014.

      [23] A. N. Yakam, J. Noeske, P. Dambach, S. Bowong, and L. A. Fono, “Spatial analysis of tuberculosis in Douala , Cameroon : clustering and links with socio-economic status,” Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 292–297, 2014.

      [24] E. Musenge, P. Vounatsou, M. Collinson, S. Tollman, and K. Kahn, “The contribution of spatial analysis to understanding HIV/TB mortality in children: a structural equation modelling approach,” Glob Health Action 2013, vol. 19266, no. 1, 2013.

      [25] K. Touray, I. M. Adetifa, a Jallow, J. Rigby, D. Jeffries, Y. B. Cheung, S. Donkor, R. a Adegbola, and P. C. Hill, “Spatial analysis of tuberculosis in an urban west African setting: is there evidence of clustering?,” Trop. Med. Int. Health, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 664–72, Jun. 2010.

      [26] S. D. Hamusse, M. Demissie, and B. Lindtjørn, “Trends in TB case notification over fifteen years: the case notification of 25 Districts of Arsi Zone of Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia.,” BMC Public Health, vol. 14, p. 304, Jan. 2014.

      [27] C. Erazo, S. M. Pereira, M. da C. N. Costa, D. Evangelista-Filho, J. U. Braga, and M. L. Barreto, “Tuberculosis and living conditions in Salvador , Brazil : a spatial analysis,” Rev Panam Salud Publica, vol. 2008, no. 1, pp. 24–30, 2014.

      [28] G. Harling and M. C. Castro, “A spatial analysis of social and economic determinants of tuberculosis in Brazil.,” Health Place, vol. 25, pp. 56–67, Jan. 2014.

      [29] E. L. N. Maciel, W. Pan, R. Dietze, R. L. Peres, S. A. Vinhas, F. K. Ribeiro, M. Palaci, R. R. Rodrigues, E. Zandonade, and J. E. Golub, “Spatial patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and their relationship to socio-economic status in Vitoria, Brazil,” Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1395–1402, 2013.

      [30] R. P. F. de Queiroga, L. D. de Sá, J. de A. Nogueira, E. R. V. de Lima, P. G. O. D. Pinheiro, A. C. O. Silva, and J. U. Braga, “Spatial distribution of tuberculosis and relationship with living conditions in an urban area of Campina Grande – 2004 to 2007 Distribuição espacial da tuberculose e a relação com condições de vida,” Rev Bras Epidemio, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 222–232, 2012.

      [31] A. Zaragoza Bastida, M. Hernández Tellez, L. P. Bustamante Montes, I. Medina Torres, J. N. Jaramillo Paniagua, G. D. Mendoza Martínez, and N. Ramírez Durán, “Spatial and temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Mexico, Mexico.,” Sci. World J., vol. 2012, p. 570278, Jan. 2012.

      [32] E. Nava-Aguilera, Y. López-Vidal, E. Harris, A. Morales-Pérez, S. Mitchell, M. Flores-Moreno, A. Villegas-Arrizón, J. Legorreta-Soberanis, R. Ledogar, and N. Andersson, “Clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases in Acapulco: Spoligotyping and risk factors.,” Clin. Dev. Immunol., vol. 2011, p. 408375, Jan. 2011.

      [33] M. Lynn Feske, “Endemic Tuberculosis, the Homeless, and Public Transportation: A Merging of Geographical Information Systems Surveillance and the Houston Tuberculosis Initiative Surveillance Project,” The University of Texas, 2011.

      [34] C. Prussing, C. Castillo-Salgado, N. Baruch, and W. A. Cronin, “Geo-Epidemiologic and Molecular Characterization to Identify Social , Cultural , and Economic Factors Where Targeted Tuberculosis Control Activities Can Reduce Incidence in Maryland , 2004 – 2010,” 2013.

      [35] L. Couceiro, P. Santana, and C. Nunes, “Pulmonary tuberculosis and risk factors in Portugal :,” INT J TUBERC LUNG DIS, vol. 15, no. May 2010, pp. 1445–1454, 2011.

      [36] T. Buyong, Spatial statistics for geographic information science. Penerbit UTM, Skudai, Johor Bahru. pp. 983–52, 0393–8 (3). 2006.

      [37] P. Dirk, "Epidemiological Spatial Analysis of Animal Health Problems". 2008.

      [38] A.R.Abdul Rasam, N.M. Shariff, and Dony, J. F, "Ïdentifying High-Risk Populations of Tuberculosis Using Environmental Factors and GIS Based Multi-Criteria Decision Making Method" ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII-4/W1, Pp 9–13. doi:10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-W1-9-2016. 2016.




Article ID: 15958
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i3.11.15958

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.