A Review on Performance of Chemical, Natural and Composite Coagulant

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    Coagulation and flocculation process are commonly used in the treatment of water and wastewater. Normally the chemical coagulant (inorganics coagulants) is widely used as primary coagulant due to its availability, show good efficiency, cheaper and ease to handle. However, from the previous study, the application of conventional coagulant causes environmental effect and consumed large dosage. Many studies were carried out to overcome this problem such as the development of new chemical coagulant, utilization of natural coagulant, application of dual coagulant and composite coagulant. Development of new chemical coagulant such as pre-hydrolysing coagulant (combination of two or more chemical coagulant) and synthetic cationic polymers that richer with positive charge ion are seen able to enhance the removal efficiency at a lower dosage. However, this coagulant still is made from chemical substances that probably contribute to the toxicological issues. To date, natural coagulant is widely explored due to its capability, besides free from physical, and chemical changes in the treated water. However, most of the natural coagulant as single coagulant is not effective in removal compared to the chemical coagulant. Thus, to improve the efficiency while combining the best properties of both coagulants, the development of composite coagulant made from natural and chemical coagulant is necessary. The objective of this paper is to gives an overview of the performance of single, dual, and composite coagulants in order to develop the novel composite coagulant.

     

     


  • Keywords


    Natural coagulant, composite coagulant

  • References


      [1] Bohdziewicz, J and Kwarciak, A. (2008). The application of hybrid system UASB reactor-RO in landfill leachate treatment. Desalination, 222, pp. 128-134.

      [2] Wang, C, Lee, P, Kumar, M, Huang, Y, Sung, S and Lin, J. (2010). Partial nitrification anaerobic ammonium oxidation and denitrification (SNAD) in a full-scale landfill leachate treatment plant. Journal of Hazardous Materials 175, pp.622-628.

      [3] Ismail, S.N.S and Manaf, L.A. (2013). The challenge of future landfill: A case study of Malaysia. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental, Vol.5(6), pp.86-96.

      [4] Adeolu, A.O, Ada, O.V, Gbenga, A.A and Adebayo, O.A. (2011). Assessment of groundwater contamination by leachate near a municipal solid waste landfill. Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 5(11), pp. 33-940.

      [5] Renou, S, Givaudan, J.G, Poulain, S, Dirassouyan, F and Moulin, P. (2008). Landfill leachate treatment: Review and opportunity. Journal Hazardous Materials, Vol.150 (3), pp.468-493.

      [6] Ward, R. J., McCrohan, C. R., & White, K. N. (2006). Influence of aqueous aluminium on the immune system of the freshwater crayfish Pacifasticus leniusculus. Aquatic toxicology, 77(2), 222-228.

      [7] Amor, C., De Torres-Socías, E., Peres, J. A., Maldonado, M. I., Oller, I., Malato, S., & Lucas, M. S. (2015). Mature landfill leachate treatment by coagulation/flocculation combined with Fenton and solar photo-Fenton processes. Journal of hazardous materials, 286, 261-268.

      [8] Sharma, B. R., Dhuldhoya, N. C., & Merchant, U. C. (2006). Flocculants—an ecofriendly approach. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 14(2), 195-202.

      [9] Singh, R. P., Karmakar, G. P., Rath, S. K., Karmakar, N. C., Pandey, S. R., Tripathy, T., ... & Lan, N. T. (2000). Biodegradable drag reducing agents and flocculants based on polysaccharides: Materials and applications. Polymer Engineering & Science, 40(1), 46-60.

      [10] A. Baeza, M. Fernandez, M. Herranz, F. Legarda, C. Miro, A. Salas (2003), “Elimination of man-made radionuclides from natural waters by applying a standard coagulation-flocculation process” Journal of Radio analytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 260, pp. 321-326.

      [11] Zin, N. S. M., Aziz, H. A., Adlan, M. N., Ariffin, A., Yusoff, M. S., & Dahlan, I. (2014). Treatability Study of Partially Stabilized Leachate by Composite Coagulant (Prehydrolyzed Iron and Tapioca Flour). International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge, 2(7), 313.

      [12] Sarkar, A. K., Mandre, N. R., Panda, A. B., & Pal, S. (2013). Amylopectin grafted with poly (acrylic acid): Development and application of a high-performance flocculant. Carbohydrate polymers, 95(2), 753-759.

      [13] Norulaini, N.N.A, Zuhairi, A.A and Hakimi, M.I. (2001). Chemical coagulation of settleable solid-free palm oil mill effluent (POME) for organic load reduction. Journal of Industrial Technology, 10, pp.55-72.

      [14] Tripathy, T and De, B.R. (2006). Flocculation: A new way to treat the wastewater. Journal of Physical Sciences, Vol.10, pp. 93-127.

      [15] Sahu, O. P., & Chaudhari, P. K. (2013). Review on chemical treatment of industrial waste water. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 17(2), 241-257.

      [16] Gregory, J. (2006). Particles in Water: Properties and Processes, London: IWA Pub: Boca Rotan, CRC Press Tylor & Francis.

      [17] Adachi, Y. A. S. U. H. I. S. A. (1995). Dynamic aspects of coagulation and flocculation. Advances in colloid and interface science, 56, 1-31.

      [18] Zainol, N.A, Aziz, H.A and Yusoff, M.S. (2011). Coagulation and floccu;ation process of landfill leachate in removing COD and ammonia using Polyaluminum chloride (PACl). UMTAS Conferrence.

      [19] Daud., Z. (2008). Olahan Larut Lesapan Semi-Aerobik Tapak Pelupusan Sanitari Pulau Burung Menggunakan Gabungan Kaedah Penggumpalan Pengelompokan dan Penurasan. Universiti Sains Malaysia: Tesis Ph.D.

      [20] Jiang, J. Q., & Graham, N. J. (1998). Pre-polymerised inorganic coagulants and phosphorus removal by coagulation- a review. Water Sa, 24(3), 237-244.

      [21] Rui L.M, Daud, Z and Latif, A.A.A. (2012). Coagulation-flocculation in leachate treatment using combination of PAC with cationic and anionic polymers. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), Vol.2, pp.1935-1940.

      [22] Yang, Z., Liu, B., Gao, B., Wang, Y., & Yue, Q. (2013). Effect of Al species in polyaluminum silicate chloride (PASiC) on its coagulation performance in humic acid–kaolin synthetic water. Separation and Purification Technology, 111, 119–124.

      [23] Gregory, J., & Rossi, L. (2001). Dynamic testing of water treatment coagulants. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 1(4), 65-72.

      [24] Razali, M.A.A., Ahmad, Z., Ahmad, M.S.B., Ariffin, A., 2011.Treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater with various molecular weight of polyDADMAC induced flocculation.Chem. Eng. J. 166, 529–535

      [25] Tatsi, A.A., Zouboulis, A.I., Matis, K.A. & Samaras, P. (2003) Coagulation and flocculation pre-treatment of sanitary landfill leachates. Chemosphere, 53, 737-744.

      [26] Sinha, S., Yoon, Y., Amy, G., & Yoon, J. (2004). Determining the effectiveness of conventional and alternatives coagulants through effectives characterization schemes. Chemosphere, 57(9), 1115-1112.

      [27] Verma, A. K., Dash, R. R., & Bhunia, P. (2012). A review on chemical coagulation/flocculation technologies for removal of colour from textile wastewaters. Journal of Environmental Management, 93(1), 154-168.

      [28] Perez, S., PM. Baldwin, DJ. Gallant, (2009). Structural features of starch granules I. In J. Be Miller & R. Whistler (Eds.), Starch: Chemistry and technology, Third edition (pp: 149-192). USA: Academic Press/Elsevier Inc.

      [29] Choubey, S., Rajput, S. K., & Bapat, K. N. (2012). Comparison of Efficiency of some Natural Coagulants-Bioremediation. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 2, 429-434.

      [30] Theodoro, J. D. P., Lenz, G. F., Zara, R. F., & Bergamasco, R. (2013). Coagulants and natural polymers: perspectives for the treatment of water. Plastic and Polymer Technology, 2(3), 55-62.

      [31] Mohd Omar, F., Sohrab, H., & Tjoon Tow, T. (2013). Semiconductor wastewater treatment using tapioca starch as a natural coagulant. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2013.

      [32] Lee, K.E., Morad, N., Teng, T.T., Poh, B.T., 2012. Development, characterization and the application of hybrid materials in coagulation/flocculation of wastewater: a review. Chem. Eng. J.203, 370–386.

      [33] Wang, J.-P., Chen, Y.-Z., Ge, X.-W., Yu, H.-Q., (2007). Optimization of coagulation–flocculation process for a paper-recycling wastewater treatment using response surface methodology. Colloids Surf. A: Physico chem. Eng. Aspects 302, 204–210.

      [34] Zou, J., H. Zhu, F. Wang, H. Sui, J. Fan, (2011). Preparation of a new inorganic-organic composite flocculant used in solid-liquid separation for waste drilling fluid. Chem. Eng. J., 171(1): 350-356.

      [35] Sen, G., Ghosh, S., Jha, U., Pal, S., 2011. Hydrolyzedpolyacrylamide grafted carboxymethylstarch (Hyd.CMS-g-PAM): an efficient flocculant for the treatment oftextile industry wastewater. Chem. Eng. J. 171, 495–501.

      [36] Bohd Bharti, S., Mishra, S., Sen, G., 2013. Ceric ion initiated synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted oatmeal: its application as flocculant for wastewater treatment. Carbohydr. Polym. 93, 528–536.

      [37] Yang, Z., Yang, H., Jiang, Z., Cai, T., Li, H., Li, H., Li, A., Cheng, R.,2013. Flocculation of both anionic and cationic dyes inaqueous solutions by the amphoteric grafting flocculantcarboxymethyl chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide. J. Hazard.Mater. 254–255, 36–45.

      [38] Ng, M., Liana, A. E., Liu, S., Lim, M., Chow, C. W., Wang, D., ... & Amal, R. (2011). A study on the behaviour of polyaluminum chloride/chitosan composite coagulant for water treatment process. Chemeca 2011: Engineering a Better World: Sydney Hilton Hotel, NSW, Australia, 18-21 September 2011, 2210.

      [39] Ni, F., Peng, X., He, J., Yu, L., Zhao, J., & Luan, Z. (2012). Preparation and characterization of composite bioflocculants in comparison with dual-coagulants for the treatment of kaolin suspension. Chemical engineering journal, 213, 195-202.

      [40] LI, Z. W., SUN, L. P., & WU, L. (2009). Treatment of Landfill Leachate by Composite Coagulant of Polyaluminum Chloride and Polyacrylamide [J]. China Water & Wastewater, 23, 030.

      [41] Mohd Omar, F., Teng, T. T., Ismail, N., Rahman, N. A., & Norulaini, N. Treatment of Semiconductor Wastewater by Natural Coagulants: Corn Sago And Rice Flour Using Response Surface Methodology.

      [42] García-Fayos, B., Arnal, J. M., Verdú, G., & Sauri, A. (2010, October). Study of Moringa oleifera oil extraction and its influence in primary coagulant activity for drinking water treatment. In International conference on food innovation.

      [43] Ali, E. N., Muyibi, S. A., Salleh, H. M., Salleh, M. R. M., & Alam, M. (2009). Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant for water treatment.

      [44] Shahriari, T., & Nabi Bidhendi, G. (2012). Starch efficiency in water turbidity removal. Asian J. Nat. and Appl. Sci, 1(2), 34-37.

      [45] Ilhan, F., Kurt, U., Apaydin, O., & Gonullu, M. T. (2008). Treatment of leachate by electrocoagulation using aluminum and iron electrodes. Journal of hazardous materials, 154(1), 381-389.

      [46] Daud, Z., Aziz, A., & Abdul Latif, L. M. (2012). Coagulation-Flocculation In Leachate Treatment By Using Ferric Chloride And Alum As Coagulant

      [47] Aziz, H. A., Alias, S., Adlan, M. N., Asaari, A. H., & Zahari, M. S. (2007). Colour removal from landfill leachate by coagulation and flocculation processes. Bioresource Technology, 98(1), 218-220.

      [48] Ghafari, S., Aziz, H. A., & Bashir, M. J. (2010). The use of poly-aluminum chloride and alum for the treatment of partially stabilized leachate: A comparative study. Desalination, 257(1), 110-116.

      [49] Mohd Faiz Muaz A.Z., Mohd Suffian Y., A.A. (2014). The Study of Flocculant Characteristics for Landfill Leachate Treatment Using Starch Based Flocculant from Durio Zibethinus Seed. Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(15) Special 2014, Pages: 129-135

      [50] Zin, N. S. M., Aziz, H. A., & Tajudin, S. A. A. (2006). Performance of Tapioca Starch In Removing Suspended Solid, Colour And Ammonia From Real Partially Stabilized Leachate By Coagulation-Flocculation Method.

      [51] Al-Hamadani, Y. A., Yusoff, M. S., Umar, M., Bashir, M. J., & Adlan, M. N. (2011). Application of psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid in semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment. Journal of hazardous materials, 190(1), 582-587.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 17373
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i3.23.17373




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.