National and International Policies Governing Haze in Malaysia: a Move Forward towards a Greener Future

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    Haze crisis is one of the worst disaster that ever-hit Malaysia and the neighboring countries: Singapore and Indonesia. Haze pollution caused harm to the economy and public health of the three countries. The transboundary haze caused by Indonesian forest fires consti-tutes regional and international harm. According to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the haze poses a security risk to states and human. Oil palm boom in Indonesia has sparked transboundary haze in Southeast Asia where Malaysia as one of the world largest producers of palm oils also invest in Indonesia. There have been suggestions to put up legal redress in facing the haze crisis. The suggestion of shared responsibility in cases of transboundary air pollution should be enforced by all parties for the sake of public interest. This paper examines the roles of state responsibility in dealing with air pollution and the roles of ASEAN countries in dealing with trans-boundary air pollution. It concludes with suggestion that the companies as key players in the palm oil industry also play a pivotal role in keeping the environment safe from pollution.

  • Keywords

    Policy, Haze Pollution, Environment

  • References

      [1] BERNAMA, (1997), ASEAN Environment Ministers Meet on Haze. Dec 22 1997: 1. [2] Black R (2012), Stockholm: Birth of the Green Generation, Avail-able at [3] Business Times (2016) Indonesia urges action against slash-and-burn clearing as haze season arrives, Available at http://
      [4] Cotton J (1999), The "Haze" Over Southeast Asia: Challenging the ASEAN Mode of Regional Engagement. Pacific Affairs; Vancou-ver 72(3), 331-351.
      [5] Forsyth T (2014), “Public concerns about transboundary haze: A comparison of Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia”, Global Environmental Change, 25. March, pp. 76-86.
      [6] Hamid AJ (2015), The Heavy price of Haze. The New Straits Times. 20 September 2015. [7] Hall, N. (2010) Environmental Law and Policy: Nature, Law, and Society. Aspen Publishers, Inc.
      [8] Haron S (1997), Regional Plan to Fight Haze Adopted, New Straits Time; Kuala Lumpur, 24 Dec 1997: 01.
      [9] Heillmann D (2015), “After Indonesia‟s Ratification: The ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution and Its Effectiveness as a Regional Environmental Governance Tool”, Journal of Cur-rent Southeast Asia Affairs 34(3), 95-121.
      [10] Hiskes RP (2005), “The Right to a Green Future: Human Rights, Environmentalism, and Intergenerational Justice”, Human Rights Quarterly 27( 4), 1346-1364.
      [11] J Othman, M Sahani, M Mahmud, MKS Ahmad (2014) Trans-boundary Smoke Haze Pollution In Malaysia: Inpatient Health Im-pacts And Economic Valuation, Environmental Pollution 189, 194- 201.
      [12] Kamaruddin H & Aminuddin C (2015), Transboundary Haze Pol-luters and Accountability; the Legal Landscape in Indonesia and Malaysia, Proceeding, 18th International Academic Conference, London, 25th August.
      International Journal of Engineering & Technology 343
      [13] Nazeer N & Furuoko F (2017), “Overview of Asean Environment, Transboundary Haze Pollution Agreement and Public Health”, IJAPS, 3(1), pp. 73-94.
      [14] Nguitiragool P (2002), Negotiating the Haze Treaty Rationality and Institutions in the Negotiations for the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution, Asian Survey 51(2), March/April,356-378.
      [15] Palanissamy A (2013), Haze Free Air in Singapore and Malaysia- the Spirit of the Law in South Asia. International Journal of Educa-tion and Research 1(8), 1-8.
      [16] Sahabat Alam Malaysia (2005), Malaysian Environment in Crisis. Shah Alam: Sahabat Alam Malaysia.
      [17] Tan, A.K (2015) “The 'Haze' Crisis in Southeast Asia: Assessing Singapore‟s Transboundary Haze Pollution Act 2014” (February 1, 2015). NUS - Centre for Asian Legal Studies Working Paper No. 15/02. Available at SSRN: or
      [18] Varkkey, H (2011) Plantation Land Management, Fires And Haze In Southeast Asia, Malaysian Journal of Environmental Manage-ment 12 (2), 33- 41.
      [19] Varkkey, H. (2013) Patronage Politics, Plantation Fires And Trans-boundary Haze. Environmental Hazards 12 (3-4), 200-217.




Article ID: 17594
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i3.25.17594

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.