Damage states of nine-story tunnel form building under earthquake excitations using Ruaumoko 2D program

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    A lot of structural damage was observed after the earthquakes and it is very important to determine the level of safety of these buildings. One of the popular construction methods in Malaysia is a tunnel form building system which built for apartments, condominiums and residential houses using British Standard known as BS 8110. This standard is the non-seismic code of practice. Subsequently, a prototype four bay nine-story tunnel form building system was designed using STAAD PRO program and modeling using Ruaumoko 2D program under seven past ground motion records. The nonlinear time history analysis and parameters of dynamic analysis were obtained from this program. The earthquake excitations, spectral displacements, pseudo spectral accelerations, mode shapes and maximum deformations were used to determine the level of safety for this type of building. The comparison was made between the experimental results and  modeling results in order to assess the levels of safety for seven past ground motions. It can be concluded that this building survives under Bukit Tinggi Earthquake and Greece Earthquake, severe damage under EL-Centro North South Earthquake and Pacoima Dam Earthquake and collapse under the 1940EL-Centro East West Earthquake, Norway Earthquake and the 1985 Mexico City Earthquake.



  • Keywords

    Spectral Acceleration; Level of Safety; Earthquake Excitations; Survive; Collapse.

  • References

      [1] R. V. Whitman, Damage probability matrices for prototype buildings, Department of Civil Engineering, Research Report R73-57, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Unites States, (1973).

      [2] M. Hill and T. Rossetto, Comparison of building damages scales and damages description for use in earthquake loss modeling in Europe, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 6(2), (2008), 335-365. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-007-9057-y.

      [3] ATC 13, Earthquake damage evaluation data for California, Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, California, United States, (1985).

      [4] HAZUS 1999, Earthquake loss estimation methodology HAZUS99, Service Release 2(5R2), Technical Manual, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, United States, (1999).

      [5] FEMA 273, NEHRP Guidelines for seismic rehabilitation of buildings, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, United States, (1997).

      [6] A. Nouri, S. Abdullah and B. Pardhan, Estimation of peak ground acceleration (PGA) for Peninsular Malaysia, IOP Conference Series Earth and Environment, 5(1), (2016), 72-83.

      [7] A. Mohamad, Monitoring active faults in Ranau, Sabah using GPS, 19th United Nations Regions Cartographic Conference for Asia and Pacific, United Nations, Economic and Social Council, (2012), page 7, https;//www.jupem.gov.my.

      [8] O.S. Boyd, C.S. Muellar and K.S. Rukstales, Preliminary earthquake hazard map of Afganistan, USGS Afganistan Project Product No. 156, Open File Report 2007-1137, (2007), page 29. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20071137.

      [9] Russian National Standards, SN460-74, Provisional Guidelines concerning the contents and preparation of detailed building blueprints for buildings and structures, (1978).

      [10] A.G. Kay Dora, M.A. Tukiar, N.H. Hamid, H.M. Yee and J. Nurjuhanah, Assessment of precast beam-column exterior joint subjected to design basis earthquake (DBE) and maximum considered earthquake (MCE) using fragility curve, AIP Conference Proceedings 1774, 030010 (2016): https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4965066.

      [11] N.H. Hamid, N.M. Mohamad, Z. Hamid, S.H. Ghani, Seismic assessment of full-bay single bay double-storey house using fragility curve, Malaysian Construction Research Journal, 1(2), (2012), 65-77.

      [12] F.D. Luca and G.M. Verderame, Seismic vulnerability assessment: reinforced concrete structures, Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2021, (2014), German, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36197-5_252-1.

      [13] N.H. Hamid and S.A. Anuar, Modeling of a tunnel form building using Ruaumoko 2D program, In advanced Engineering and Technology, proceedings of the 2014 Annual Congress on Advanced Engineering and Technology, CAET, (2014), 77-81. https://doi.org/10.1201/b16699-14.

      [14] N.H. Hamid, L.H. Tarmizi and K.D. Ghani, Modeling of two-storey precast school building using Ruaumoko 2D program, AIP Conference Proceeding, 1660,070012,(2015), https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4915730.

      [15] A.G. Kay Dora and N.H. Hamid, Modeling hysteresis loops of corner beam-column joint using Ruaumoko Program, 2014 Annual Congress on Advanced Engineering and technology, CAET, (2014), 115-120. https://doi.org/10.1201/b16699-20.

      [16] D.J. Dowrick, Hysteresis loops for timber structures, Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 19(2), (1986), 143-152.

      [17] J.R, Moreno, L.G. Pujades, A.H. Barbat and A.C. Apanricio, Influence of masonry infills walls on the seismic behavior of multi-storey waffle slabs RC buildings, 13th World Conference of Earthquake Engineering (13WCEE), Vancouver, B.C. Canada, (2004), Paper No. 29.

      [18] T.A. Majid, M.I. Adinyanto and F.M. Nazri, Nonlinear response of low rise hospital RC building in Malaysia due to far and near field earthquake, Journal of Civil Engineering Research, 4(No.3A), (2014),130-134.

      [19] S.A. Anuar, Seismic performance between unrepaired and repaired of tunnel form building under lateral cyclic loading, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknology MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, (2016).

      [20] K.D. Ghani, Seismic performance of full-scale precast non-seismic beam-column joints with corbels under in-plane lateral cyclic loading, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknology MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, (2015).

      [21] J.W. Baker, Measuring bias in structural response caused by ground motion scaling, 8th Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Singapore, Paper N0.56, CD Rom Proceeding, (2007).

      [22] Baker J.W., Cornell C.A. 2005b. Vector-Valued Ground Motion Intensity Measures for Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis. John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center. John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center Report No. 150. Report #150, Stanford, CA, 321 pp.

      [23] N.H. Hamid and J.B. Mander, A comparative seismic performance between precast hollow core walls and conventional walls using incremental dynamic analysis, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 37(7), (2012), 1801-1815. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-012-0301-7.

      [24] A.J. Carr, Ruaumoko Theory Manual, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New, Zealand, (2007).

      [25] C. Balkaya and E. Kalkan, Nonlinear seismic response evaluation of tunnel form building, Computers and Structures, 18(3), (2003a), 153-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-7949(02)00434-0.

      [26] C. Balkaya and E. Kalkan, Estimation of fundamental periods of shear-wall dominant building structures, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 32, (2003b), 985-998. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.258.




Article ID: 18308
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.18308

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.