Improving Low-Cost Solutions for Path Mapping in Autonomous Vehicle

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    One of the main challenge in designing autonomous vehicle is developing the algorithms necessary for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). While this process heavily depends on an expensive hardware called Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), there are cheaper alternatives that can be implemented in earlier stage of autonomous vehicle development. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), vehicle odometry, and Global Positioning System (GPS) can be used as a solution. The main problem is these cheaper alternatives relies heavily on the precision of the hardware used. In this project, we outline the mapping process using these cheaper solutions which can also be used to complement LiDAR-based SLAM. We show that using simple approaches such as static bias drift removal, high-pass filtering, signal downsampling and linear interpolation, we can increase the robustness and improve the accuracy and precision of the IMU and GPS used respectively. We manage to increase the precision of the GPS readings and reduce the drift of IMU on average from -17.105 deg/min to -0.1177 deg/min. We show the improvement achieved by our proposed method by mapping the road around Engine Square, Jalan Ilmu 1/1, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

     

     


  • Keywords


    Inertial measurement unit; global positioning system; path planning; dead reckoning; autonomous vehicle.

  • References


      [1] Wayback Machine, 2017.

      [2] R. Vivacqua, R. Vassallo, and F. Martins, "A low cost sensors approach for accurate vehicle localization and autonomous driving application," Sensors, 17(10), 1-33, 2017.

      [3] O. Wulf and B. Wagner, "Fast 3D scanning methods for laser measurement systems," Proceedings of the International Conference on Control Systems and Computer Science, 2003, pp. 2-5.

      [4] GPS.gov, "GPS accuracy," 2016, http://www.gps.gov/systems/gps/performance/accuracy/.

      [5] F. Cavallo, A. M. Sabatini, and V. Genovese, "A step toward GPS/INS personal navigation systems: Real-time assessment of gait by foot inertial sensing," Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2005, pp. 1187-1191.

      [6] M. S. Grewal, L. R. Weill, and A. P. Andrews, Global positioning systems, inertial navigation, and integration. John Wiley and Sons, 2007.

      [7] G.-B. D.A., T. C., S. Moafipoor, Y. Jwa, and J. Kwon, "Multi-sensor personal navigator supported by human motion dynamics model," Proceedings of the 3rd IAG Symposium on Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering/12th FIG Symposium on Deformation Measurements, 2006, pp. 129-140.

      [8] C. Basnayake, O. Mezentsev, G. Lachapelle, and M. E. Cannon, "An HSGPS, inertial and map-matching integrated portable vehicular navigation system for uninterrupted real-time vehicular navigation," International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems, 1(1-2), 131-151, 2005.

      [9] S. Godha and G. Lachapelle, "Foot mounted inertial system for pedestrian navigation," Measurement Science and Technology, 19(7), 1-9, 2008.

      [10] J. Borenstein, L. Ojeda, and S. Kwanmuang, "Heuristic reduction of gyro drift in IMU-based personnel tracking systems," Optics and Photonics in Global Homeland Security V and Biometric Technology for Human Identification VI, 2009, 7306, 1-11.

      [11] P. Misra and P. Enge, Global positioning system: Signals, measurements and performance. Jamuna Press, 2006.

      [12] Y.-C. Chao, "Real time implementation of the wide area augmentation system for the global positioning system with an emphasis on ionospheric modeling," PhD theis, Stanford University, 1997.

      [13] B. M. Scherzinger, "Precise robust positioning with inertially aided RTK," Navigation, 53(2), 73-83, 2006.

      [14] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), IEEE standard specification format guide and test procedure for single-axis interferometric fiber optic gyros. IEEE, 1996.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 20807
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.11.20807




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.