Effect of Thermally Activated Alum Sludge Ash and Nanoclay on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Mortars

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    This paper investigates the effect of thermally activated alum sludge ash (AASA) and nanoclay (NC) inclusion at various proportions on the mechanical properties and microstructure of kenaf fiber (KF) blended cementitious composites (KFRBCC). The first objective is to establish a blended cementitious (BC) composite with high mechanical strength. The BC materials used in this investigation comprises of various proportions of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), AASA and NC. Next, the influence of AASA and NC proportions on the properties of KFRBCC such as density and compressive, split tensile and flexural strengths, and microstructure are studied. The results show that the inclusion of AASA and NC improve the mechanical properties of the cementitious composite compared to all OPC mortar with or without KF. The enhancement in compressive strength is 50%, whereas the enhancement in split tensile and flexural strengths are 5.4% and 15%, respectively at optimum content of AASA and NC of 50 wt. % and 1 wt. %, respectively. The results also reveal that the microstructure of the composites is denser due to filler effect where the uniformly dispersed AASA and NC nano-particles had filled the voids/pores in the matrix compared to control specimens. AASA is proved to be benificial as one of cementitious replacement materials and its applicability as cement replacement in concrete should be explored further.

     

     


  • Keywords


    cementitious composite; kenaf fiber; microstructure; mechanical strength; thermally activated alum sludge ash.

  • References


      [1] Alsalman A, Dang CN & Micah HW (2017), “Development of ultra-high performance concrete with locally available materials,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 133, pp. 135–14.

      [2] Ghrici M, Kenai S & Said-Mansour M (2007), “Mechanical properties and durability of mortar and concrete containing natural pozzolana and limestone blended cements,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 542–549, 2007.

      [3] Bahurudeen A & Santhanam M (2015), “Influence of different processing methods on the pozzolanic performance of sugarcane bagasse ash,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 56, pp. 32–45.

      [4] Mostafa NY, Mohsen Q, El-Hemaly SAS, El-Korashy SA & PW Brown (2010), High replacements of reactive pozzolan in blended cements: Microstructure and mechanical properties. Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 386–391.

      [5] Rajamma R, Ball RJ, Tarelho LAC, Allen GC, Labrincha JA & Ferreira VM (2009), “Characterisation and use of biomass fly ash in cement-based materials.,” J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 172, no. 2–3, pp. 1049–60, Dec. 2009.

      [6] Jo BW, Kim CH & Lim JH (2007), Characteristics of cement mortar with nano-SiO 2 particles, ACI Mater. J., vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 404–407, 2007.

      [7] Hesami S, Ahmadi S & Nematzadeh M (2014), Effects of rice husk ash and fiber on mechanical properties of pervious concrete pavement, Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 53, pp. 680–691.

      [8] Janotka I, Puertas F, Palacios M, Kuliffayová M & Varga C (2010), Metakaolin sand-blended-cement pastes: Rheology, hydration process and mechanical properties. Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 791–802.

      [9] Grist ER, Paine KA (2015), a. Heath, J. Norman, and H. Pinder, “Structural and durability properties of hydraulic lime–pozzolan concretes,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 62, pp. 212–223.

      [10] Seddik MM (2015), “Durability performance and engineering properties of shale and volcanic ashes concretes,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 79, no. March 2015, pp. 73–82.

      [11] Sales A, De Souza FR & Almeida FDC (2011), “Mechanical properties of concrete produced with a composite of water treatment sludge and sawdust. Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 2793–2798.

      [12] Owaid HM, Hamid R & Taha MRR (2014), Influence of thermally activated alum sludge ash on the engineering properties of multiple-blended binders concretes. Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 61, pp. 216–229, Jun. 2014.

      [13] Tantawy MA (2015), Characterization and pozzolanic properties of calcined alum sludge. Mater. Res. Bull., vol. 61, pp. 415–421.

      [14] Frías M, Vigil DLV, Soto ID, García R, Baloa TA, “Influence of activated drinking-water treatment waste on binary cement-based composite behavior: Characterization and properties,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 60, pp. 14–20, 2014.

      [15] Quraatu N, Mohd A and Hamid R (2015), Mechanical properties of lightweight alum sludge aggregate concrete. Applied Mechanics and Materials, pp. 413–416, 2015.

      [16] Yagüe A, Valls S, Vázquez E & Albareda F (2005), Durability of concrete with addition of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants. Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1064–1073.

      [17] Patel K (2012), The use of nanoclay as a constructional material. Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1382–1386, 2012.

      [18] Papatzani S, Effect of nanosilica and montmorillonite nanoclay particles on cement hydration and microstructure. Mater. Sci. Technol., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 138–153, 2016.

      [19] Ibrahim RK, Hamid R and Taha MR, “Fire resistance of high-volume fly ash mortars with nanosilica addition,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 36, pp. 779–786, 2012.

      [20] Akil HM, Omar, Mazuki AAM, Safiee S, Ishak ZAM and Abu AB (2011), Kenaf fiber reinforced composites: A review,” Materials and Design, vol. 32. pp. 4107–4121.

      [21] ASTM C150, “Standard Specification for Portland Cement” ASTM lnternational, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017.

      [22] ASTM C618-17, “Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017.

      [23] ASTM C128-15, “Standard Test Method for Relative Density (Specific Gravity) and Absorption of Fine Aggregate,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015.

      [24] ASTM C70-13, “Standard Test Method for Surface Moisture in Fine Aggregate,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013.

      [25] ASTM C305, “Standard Practice for Mechanical Mixing of Hydraulic Cement Pastes and Mortars of Plastic Consistency,” ASTM lnternational, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011.

      [26] M. Islam, “Strength Behavior of Mortar Using Fly Ash as Partial Replacement of Cement,” Concr. Res. Lett., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 98–106, 2010.

      [27] ASTM C948-81(2016), “Standard Test Method for Dry and Wet Bulk Density, Water Absorption, and Apparent Porosity of Thin Sections of Glass-Fiber Reinforced Concrete,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016.

      [28] ASTM C109 / C109M-16a, “Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens),” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016.

      [29] ASTM C496 / C496M-17, “Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017.

      [30] ASTM C348-14, “Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014.

      [31] Kiliç A and Z. Sertabipoʇlu, “Effect of heat treatment on pozzolanic activity of volcanic pumice used as cementitious material,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 57, pp. 128–132, 2015.

      [32] Chakraborty SP, Kundu A, Roy RK, Basak B, Adhikari & Majumder SB (2013), Improvement of the mechanical properties of jute fibre reinforced cement mortar: A statistical approach,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 38, pp. 776–784.

      [33] Geetha S and Madhavan S (2015), “Light Weight Composite for Structural Wall Panels,” Mater. Today Proc., vol. 2, no. 4–5, pp. 2928–2937.

      [34] Poon CS, Cao M, Zhang C and Wei J (2013), “Microscopic reinforcement for cement based composite materials,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 40, pp. 14–25.

      [35] Naji AG, Abdul SR, Aziz FNA & Salleh MAM (2011), “The effects of lime solution on the properties of SiO2 nanoparticles binary blended concrete,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 562–569.

      [36] Dassanayake KB, Jayasinghe GY, Surapaneni A and Hetherington C, “A review on alum sludge reuse with special reference to agricultural applications and future challenges,” Waste Manag., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 321–335, 2015.

      [37] Hakamy A, Shaikh FUA & Low IM (2014), “Characteristics of hemp fabric reinforced nanoclay–cement nanocomposites,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 50, pp. 27–35.

      [38] Mader A, Kondor A, Schmid T, Einsiedel R and Müssig J (2016), “Surface properties and fibre-matrix adhesion of man-made cellulose epoxy composites - Influence on impact properties,” Compos. Sci. Technol., vol. 123, pp. 163–170.

      [39] Ismail ZZ and AL-Hashmi EA (2008), “Use of waste plastic in concrete mixture as aggregate replacement,” Waste Manag., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2041–2047.

      [40] Dawood ET and Ramli M (2011), “High strength characteristics of cement mortar reinforced with hybrid fibres,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 2240–2247.

      [41] Jahromi SG and Khodaii A (2009), “Effects of nanoclay on rheological properties of bitumen binder,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 2894–2904.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 24877
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v8i1.2.24877




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.