Street Pattern Identification for Crime Prevention through Environmental Design

Authors

  • Siti Rasidah Md Sakip
  • Anith Nabilah Mustafa

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v8i1.7.25984

Published:

2019-01-18

Keywords:

CPTED, Crime, Hotspot, Snatch theft, Street Pattern.

Abstract

Malaysia is one of the countries that is facing rapid urbanization. The crime rates are getting worse by the day and has become one of the threats faced by the community. The number of cases and incidents of snatch theft in Malaysia are fluctuating from the year of 2010 until the year 2015. Four major cities in Malaysia with high rates of snatch theft include Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Johor with 5,553 cases, 4,687 cases, 1,953 cases, and 298 cases respectively. Hence, crime prevention and common crimes of opportunities such as snatch incidents should be addressed in urban planning.  This paper focuses on street pattern identification for crime prevention through environmental design.  In this study, the street pattern that are vulnerable to incidences of snatch theft have been identified using Geographic Information System (GIS).  The result confirmed that the fragmented parallel street is prone to crime as stated in the theory of street pattern.  Previous studies by other scholars found that the street with a high turning point is relatively prone to crime.  This is confirmed in this study that a high turning point is correlative with the fragmented parallel street pattern.

 

 

References

[1] Yew, E. L. (2012). Situation Analysis of Snatch Theft Issue in Malaysia. Multimedia University (MMU).

[2] Lakshiny. (2016). 7 To 8 Police Reports Daily On Snatch Thefts In KL, Malaysians Need To Look Out For Each Other To Overcome This Crime. Retrieved July 27, 2016, from http://malaysiandigest.com/

[3] Colquhoun, I. (2004). Design Out Crime: Creating Safe and Sustainable Communities. Crime Prevention and Community Safety.

[4] The Star. (2016, April 28). Lee : Crime index down , but not public fear. Star Media Group Berhad, pp. 1–2.

[5] Wang, D., Ding, W., Lo, H., Stepinski, T., Salazar, J., & Morabito, M. (2013). Crime hotspot mapping using the crime related factors - A spatial data mining approach. Applied Intelligence, 39(4), 772–781.

[6] Maltz, M. D., Gordon, A. C., & Freidman, W. (1991). Mapping crime in its community setting: Event geography analysis. Mapping crime in its community setting: Event geography analysis.

[7] Chainey, S., Tompson, L., & Uhlig, S. (2008). The Utility of Hotspot Mapping for Predicting Spatial Patterns of Crime. Security Journal. http://doi.org/10.1057/sj.2008.6

[8] Ratcliffe, J. H. (2004). The Hotspot Matrix: A Framework for the Spatio-Temporal Targeting of Crime Reduction. Police Practice and Research, 5(1), 5–23.

[9] Monk, K., Heinonen, J. A., & Eck, J. E. (2010). Street Robbery The Problem of Street Robbery What This Guide Does and Does Not Cover. Retrieved from http://www.popcenter.org/problems/street_robbery/print/

[10] OSAC. (2015). Malaysia 2015 Crime and Safety Report, 1–8. Retrieved from https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportPDF.aspx?cid=17215

[11] Hedayati Marzbali, M., Abdullah, A., Razak, N. A., & Maghsoodi Tilaki, M. J. (2012). Validating crime prevention through environmental design construct through checklist using structural equation modelling. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 40(2), 82–99.

[12] An, J., & Yoshida, T. (2013). Use of Omnidirectional Images to Analyze Elderly People’s Feelings of Insecurity about Snatch Occurrences on Roads. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 12(2), 301–308.

[13] Southworth, M. (1997). Walkable suburbs?: An evaluation of neotraditional communities at the urban edge. Journal of the American Planning Association, 63(1), 28-44.

[14] Marshall, W. E., & Garrick, N. W. (2010). Street network types and road safety: A study of 24 California cities. URBAN DESIGN International, 15(3), 133–147.

[15] Southworth, M., & Ben-Joseph, E. (2003). Streets and the shaping of towns and cities. Washington D.C. Island Press.

[16] Li, D. X. (2011). Effects Of Street Pattern On Frequency Of Traffic Crash: A Case Study Of Gainesville, Florida. University Of Florida.

[17] Wolfe, C. (1987). Streets regulating neighborhood form: A selective history. Public Streets for Public use. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

[18] Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. In New York (Vol. 71, p. 458).

[19] Zaki, S. A., & Abdullah, J. (2012). The relationship between variations of grid layout and Burglary. Planning Malaysia, 10(June 2016), 17–40.

[20] Southworth, M., & Owens, P. M. (1993). The evolving metropolis: Studies of community, neighborhood, and street form at the urban edge. Journal of the American Planning Association, 59(3), 271-287.

[21] Beavon, D. J. K., Brantingham, P. L., & Brantingham, P. J. (1994). The influence of street networks on the patterning of property offenses. Crime Prevention Studies, Vol 2, 115–148. Retrieved from http://www.popcenter.org/library/crimeprevention/volume_02/06beavon.pdf

[22] Davies, T., & Johnson, S. D. (2015). Examining the Relationship Between Road Structure and Burglary Risk Via Quantitative Network Analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31(3), 481–507.

[23] Fujii, T., Sasaki, Y., & Kishimoto, T. (2013). Estimation Of The Risk Of Snatching In A Suburb: Case study of Soka, Saitama prefecture, Japan. Proceedings of the 9th International Space Syntax Symposium, Seoul, 111:1-111:10

[24] Newman, O. (1972). Crime Prevention Through Urban Design Defensible Space. New York: The Macmillan Company.

[25] Crowe, T. (2000). Crime prevention through environmental design. Butterworth-Heinemann.

[26] Cozens, P. M. (2002). Sustainable urban development and crime prevention through environmental design for the British City. Towards an effective urban environmentalism for the 21st century. Cities, 19(2), 129–137.

[27] Abdullah, A., Razak, N. A., Salleh, M. N. M., & Sakip, S. R. M. (2012). Validating Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Using Structural Equation Model. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36, 591–601.

[28] Hillier, B., & Shu, S. (2000). Crime and Urban Layout: The Need for Evidence. In S. Ballintyne,

[29] Kate J. Bowers Shane D. Johnson Ken Pease (2004). Prospective Hot-Spotting: The Future of Crime Mapping?. The British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 44 (5), 641–658.

[30] Kinashi, M., & Kin, T. (2008). Study of the Crime Space Based on Analyzing Criminogenic Factors for Crime Prevention. Infrastructure Planning Review, 25(1), 329–338. http://doi.org/10.2208/journalip.25.329.

[31] Jabatan Penerangan Malaysia. (2009). Enam Bidang Keberhasilan Utama Negara ï´¾ Nkra ï´¿. Retrieved June 16, 2016, from http://pmr.penerangan.gov.my/index.php/nkra/4808-pointers-6-bidang-keberhasilan-utama-negara-nkra.html

View Full Article: