Cellular Automaton based Fire Spreading Simulation in Closed Area: Clogging Region Detection

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    Fire spreading is one of the visualization techniques used for re-enacting or envisions the fire incidents for conducting the post-incidents’ responses and analysing the incidents for post-mortem purposes. There are several current researches on the fire spreading incidents that involve the construction of fire spreading simulation which has focusing on the fire development, smoke control, the prediction of temperature distribution during the fire spreading, emergency response’s plans and post-fire damage assessment. However, there are more features need to be explored in the fire spreading simulation and also the pedestrians movement of the affected incident’s area for the future space design development, arrangement and structural improvement that are impactful towards human safety and also useful for the justification and prediction on the pedestrian survival rate during any panic situations. Hence, this research has focusing on the features of realistic scaling of the spatial layout and implementing the Cellular Automata (CA) approach for imitating the near-realistic pedestrian self-organizing movement and fire spreading characteristics at the microstructure level for designing the heat map of the affected area to show the clogging region in the spatial layout while constructing a reliable prediction on the pedestrian survival rate. This clogging region mapping will be useful for finding the existing issues that lead towards high casualties. Based on the experiments and observations, the heat map of the affected area showed the heavy congestions happened specifically near to the ingress/ egress points and narrow pathways that had affected the pedestrian flow rate and caused the 75% of the 352 pedestrians in the spatial layout to burn and die during the fire simulation by unintentionally taking an extra of 43.85 seconds more than the total fire spreading time (13.42 seconds) to evacuate from the closed area building.

     

     

     

  • Keywords


    Crowd Management; Fire Spreading Simulation; Pedestrian Movement Simulation; Microscopic Movement; Cellular Automata; Clogging Region Detection

  • References


      [1] Four in a Family Killed in Fire, in The Star Online. 2017, Star Media Group Berhad (ROC 10894D).

      [2] Henderson, B. and C. Graham, Dubai Skyscraper Fire: Torch Tower Residents Wake to Screams as Flames Engulf 79-Storey Building, in The Telegraph. 2017, Telegraph Media Group Limited 2017: Unted Kingdom.

      [3] Jay, B.N., Tahfiz did not have fire exit; bodies found piled on top of each other, in New Straits Times. 2017, New Straits Times Press (M) Berhad: Malaysia.

      [4] Zong, X. and Y. Jiang. Pedestrian-vehicle mixed evacuation model based on multi-particle swarm optimization. in 2016 11th International Conference on Computer Science & Education (ICCSE). 2016.

      [5] Wineman, J.D. and J. Peponis, Constructing Spatial Meaning: Spatial Affordances in Museum Design. Environment and Behavior, 2010. 42(1): p. 86-109.

      [6] Helbing, D. and A. Johansson, Pedestrian, Crowd, and Evacuation Dynamics, in Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, R.A. Meyers, Editor. 2009, Springer New York: New York, NY. p. 1-28.

      [7] Helbing, D., et al., Simulation of pedestrian crowds in normal and evacuation situations. Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, 2002. 21(2): p. 21-58.

      [8] Pluchino, A., et al., Agent-Based Simulation of Pedestrian Behaviour in Closed Spaces: A Museum Case Study. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 2014. 17(1): p. 16.

      [9] Football stadium disasters, in The Telegraph. 2001, Telegraph Media Group: United Kingdom.

      [10] Friberg, M. and M. Hjelm, Mass evacuation-human behavior and crowd dynamics-What do we know? Law Review, 2014. 50(3): p. 747-823.

      [11] Mahoney, E.J., et al., Lessons learned from a nightclub fire: institutional disaster preparedness. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 2005. 58(3): p. 487-491.

      [12] Lu, X., et al., Impacts of Anxiety in Building Fire and Smoke Evacuation: Modeling and Validation. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 2017. 2(1): p. 255-260.

      [13] Yan, Z., X. Han, and M. Li. Accurate Assessment of RSET for Building Fire Based on Engineering Calculation and Numerical Simulation. in MATEC Web of Conferences. 2016. EDP Sciences.

      [14] Sime, J.D., Crowd psychology and engineering. Safety Science, 1995. 21(1): p. 1-14.

      [15] Hassan, F.H. Using microscopic pedestrian simulation statistics to find clogging regions. in 2016 SAI Computing Conference (SAI). 2016.

      [16] Proulx, G., High-rise evacuation: a questionable concept, in Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Human Behaviour in Fire. 2001, Interscience Communication Ltd: Boston, MA, USA.

      [17] Alidmat, O.K.A., F.H. Hassan, and A.T. Khader. Cellular automata model for pedestrian evacuation in fire spreading conditions. in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computing and Informatics, ICOCI 2015. 2015. Istanbul, Turkey: Universiti Utara Malaysia.

      [18] Hassan, F.H. and A. Tucker, Automatic Layout Design Solution, in Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis X: 10th International Symposium, IDA 2011, Porto, Portugal, October 29-31, 2011. Proceedings, J. Gama, E. Bradley, and J. Hollmén, Editors. 2011, Springer Berlin Heidelberg: Berlin, Heidelberg. p. 198-209.

      [19] Ibrahim, N., F.H. Hassan, and S.A. Zakaria. Incorporating Cellular Automaton based Microscopic Pedestrian Simulation and Genetic Algorithm for Spatial Layout Design Optimization. 2019. Singapore: Springer Singapore.

      [20] Abrahams, J. and P. Stollard, Fire from first principles: a design guide to building fire safety. 2003: Routledge.

      [21] Liu, R., D. Jiang, and L. Shi, Agent-based simulation of alternative classroom evacuation scenarios. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2016. 5(1): p. 111-125.

      [22] Papinigis, V., E. Geda, and K. Lukošius, Design of people evacuation from rooms and buildings. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 2010. 16(1): p. 131-139.

      [23] Najihah Ibrahim, Nur Shazreen Nabiha Mat Tan Salleh, and F.H. Hassan. Cellular Automaton Based Simulation in Panic and Normal Situations: A Case Study on the University Lecture Hall. in Future Technologies Conference (FTC 2017). 2017. Vancouver, Canada: SAI Conferences.

      [24] Ibrahim, N., et al., Features of Microscopic Horizontal Transition of Cellular Automaton based Pedestrian Movement in Normal and Panic Situation. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 2017. 9(2-12): p. 163-169.

      [25] Helbing, D., I. Farkas, and T. Vicsek, Simulating dynamical features of escape panic. Nature, 2000. 407(6803): p. 487-490.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 26859
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.44.26859




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.