Determination of Water Quality Parameters Using Microwave Nondestructive Method

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    This paper presents an investigation of microwave reflection and dielectric properties measured by the open-ended rectangular waveguide in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz to determine water quality parameters. Microwave method shows a potential to determine the salinity and some water quality index. The complex permittivity called dielectric properties in the microwave frequency were calculated from the microwave reflection. Several water quality parameters such as salinity, turbidity and temperature were related to the measured microwave properties of water using mathematical regression models. The results indicate that the reflection and dielectric properties of water decrease with increasing the temperature of water samples. The salinity of water sample increase the loss factor and decrease the dielectric constant of the water sample. Also, the reflection of the microwave signal and dielectric properties decrease with increasing microwave frequency and turbidity of the water. The microwave system which used microwave reflection and dielectric properties of water bodies could make the determination of water quality parameters and water indexes more simple, fast, relatively low cost compared with the current used method. Microwave method for water quality may also save a good amount of time and money compared to existing standard methods. Further investigation is needed to determine the possibility of using microwave method for predicting other water quality factors.



  • Keywords

    Dielectric Properties; Microwave; Salinity; Turbidity; Water Quality.

  • References

      [1] Claude EB, (2005), Water quality an introduction, Second Edition, Springer, Switzerland.

      [2] Eirini P, John SR, Mark EJC, (2016), Assessing the utility of geospatial technologies to investigate environmental change within lake systems, Science of the Total Environment, 543, 791–806.

      [3] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (1998) Nutrient Criteria Technical Guidance Manual. Lakes and Reservoirs. EPA-822-F-00-002, 2000.

      [4] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water, The Quality of Our Nations Waters: 1996, Executive Summary, April 1998 – EPA842-F-99-0003D, 1998.

      [5] Udo Kaatza, Hydrogen network fluctuations and the microwave dielectric properties of Liquid Water, International Journal of Subsurface Sensing Technology and Application, 1 (4) (2000) 377-391.

      [6] O. Korostynska, A. Mason, M. Ortoneda-Pedrola and A. Al-Shamma'a, Electromagnetic wave sensing of NO3and COD concentrations for real-time environmental and industrial monitoring, Sensors and Actuators B 198 (2014) 49–54.

      [7] R. L. Ahmad Shauri, R. Wagiran, S. B. Mohd Noor, R. Mohd Sidek, and A.G. Liew Abdullah, (2006) Optical Transmission-Based Water Turbidity Measurement System, International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3 (2) 257-262.

      [8] Ghodgaonkar DK, Varadan, VV & Varadan VK, (1989), Free-space method for measurement of dielectric constants and loss tangents at microwave frequencies. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 38, 789-793.

      [9] Al-Qadi IL, Riad SM, Mostafa R & Su W, (1997), Design, and evaluation of a coaxial transmission line fixture to characterize Portland cement concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 11 (3), 163-173.

      [10] Johri GK & Roberts JA, (1990), Study of the dielectric response of water using a resonant microwave cavity as a probe, Journal Physics, and Chemistry, 94 (19), 7386–7391.

      [11] Lai WL, Kind T, & Wiggenhauser H, (2011), Using ground penetrating radar and time–frequency analysis to characterize construction materials, NDT & E International, 44 (1), 111-120.

      [12] Bois, KJ, Collins F, Benally AD & Zoughi, R., (2000), Microwave near-field reflection property analysis of concrete for material content determination, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 49 (1), 49-55.

      [13] Al-Mattarneh, HMA, Ghodgaonkar DK, & Majid WMBWA, (2001), Microwave sensing of moisture content in concrete using open-ended rectangular waveguide, Subsurface Sensing Technologies, and Applications, 2 (4), 377-390.

      [14] Al-Mattarneh H, (2016), Determination of chloride content in concrete using near- and far-field microwave non-destructive methods, Corrosion Science, 105, 133–140.

      [15] Ellison WJ, Lamkaouchi K, , Moreau JM, (1996), Water: A dielectric reference, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 68, 171-279.

      [16] Al-Mattarneh H, Ghodgaonkar DK, Abdul Hamid H, Al-Fugara A, Abu Bakar SH, (2002), Microwave Reflectometer System for Continuous Monitoring of Water Quality, IEEE Proceedings of the 2002 Student Conference on Research and Development, July 16-17, 430-433.

      [17] Ermeey AK, Ghodgaonkar DK & AI-Mattameh HMA, (2003), Three Probe Reflectometer Algorithm for Complex Coefficient Measurements of Water Quality at Microwave Frequencies, IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics (APACE 2003), Shah Alam, Malaysia, 113-115.

      [18] Sorrentino R, Bianchi & Giovanni, (2010), Microwave and RF Engineering, John Wiley & Sons.




Article ID: 26915
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i3.32.26915

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.