Energy Consumption and Low Carbon Initiatives in an Academic Building: A Case Study in Malaysia

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    Climate change due to the enormous energy consumption and emission of CO2 has become major issues in the aspect of political and scientific. In Malaysia, energy consumption in building sector contributes almost half of the electricity generated hence increasing the CO2 emission. Through the Energy Efficiency Projects on Energy Efficiency (EE) programmes (2016 – 2020) initiated in RMK11,   several buildings in Malaysia have started many ways to improve energy-efficiency and saving in building such as nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB), apparatus standard, and labeling. Less attention and awareness to energy audits and in-depth monitoring in Malaysian public universities correspondingly leads to higher energy usage. By monitoring the energy consumption pattern, the conservation can be strategies and implemented. Through this study, a preliminary investigation on the energy consumption and Building Energy Use Index (BEI) in one of the selected academic buildings in Malaysian public universities has been carried out. From an initial data collection or walk-through audits, several energy-saving suggestions were made at identified areas that can be improved towards energy saving.     Several works of literature have been reviewed to gathered additional information related to energy policies and regulations on Malaysia’s perspective.


  • Keywords

    Energy Consumption; Energy efficiency; Building Energy Use Index (BEI); Energy policy

  • References

      [1] 2002/91/CE, D. (2002). Energy efficiency: energy performance of buildings. from

      [2] (IEA), I.E.A. (2014). Energy Efficiency Indicators: Essentials for Policy Making.

      [3] (IPCC, I.P.o.C.C. (2014). Major Greenhouse Gas Reductions Needed by 2050: IPCC.

      [4] (MS), M.S. (2007). Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and Use of Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings (the Malaysian Standard MS1525:2007).

      [5] (TNB), T.N.B. Electricity Supply Appication Handbook (Vol. 3rd Edition). Malaysia.

      [6] (TNB), T.N.B. Pricing & Tariff.

      [7] (TNB), T.N.B. (2017). Power Factor 2017, from

      [8] (UNFCCC), U.N.F.C.o.C.C. (2015). Malaysia Climate Action Plan.

      [9] Abdellah, R.H., Masrom, M. A. N., Chen, G. K., Mohamed, S., & Omar, R. 2017. The potential of net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) concept at design stage for healthcare buildings towards sustainable development IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 271, 012021.

      [10] Al-Shemmeri, T., & Naylor, L. 2017. Energy saving in UK FE colleges: The relative importance of the socio-economic groups and environmental attitudes of employees. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 68, 1130-1143.

      [11] Azar, E., & Menassa, C.C. 2012. A comprehensive analysis of the impact of occupancy parameters in energy simulation of office buildings. Energy and Buildings, 55, 841-853.

      [12] Berhad, T.N. (2014). TNB's Electric Pricing and Tariff from

      [13] Chan, S.A. (2009). GREEN BUILDING INDEX – MS1525. Paper presented at the In PAM CPD Seminar: Applying MS1525

      [14] Chung M.H., R.E.K. 2014. Potential Opportunities for Energy Conservation in Existing Buildings on University Campus: A field survey in Korea. Energy and Buildings, 78, 176–182.

      [15] Comission, M.E. (2008). Efficient Management of Electrical Energy Regulations.

      [16] Commision, M.E. (2016). Guidelines on Large Scale Solar Photovoltaic Plant for Connection to Electricity Networks.

      [17] Commission, I.E. (2017). IEC 61000.

      [18] Commission, M.E. (2013). Enhancing Energy Efficiency In Malaysia Through Legislation and Policy.

      [19] Disterheft, A., da Silva Caeiro, S. S. F., Ramos, M. R., & de Miranda Azeiteiro, U. M.. . 2012. Environmental Management Systems (EMS) implementation processes and practices in European higher education institutions–Top-down versus participatory approaches. Journal of Cleaner Production, 31, 80-90.

      [20] Electric, S. (2014). IEEE Standard 519-2014.

      [21] FLUKE. Three Phase Power Recorder - Fluke 1750 Manuals.

      [22] Gul, M.S., & Patidar, S. 2015. Understanding the energy consumption and occupancy of a multi-purpose academic building. Energy and Buildings(87), 155-165.

      [23] Gul, M.S., & Patidar, S. 2015. Understanding the energy consumption and occupancy of a multi-purpose academic building. Energy and Buildings, 87, 155-165.

      [24] Habib, M.A., Hasanuzzaman, M., Hosenuzzaman, M., Salman, A., & Mehadi, M.R. 2016. Energy consumption, energy saving and emission reduction of a garment industrial building in Bangladesh. Energy, 112, 91-100.

      [25] Hasanuzzaman, M., Rahim, N.A., Saidur, R., & Kazi, S.N. 2011. Energy savings and emissions reductions for rewinding and replacement of industrial motor. Energy, 36(1), 233-240.

      [26] Kementerian Tenaga, T.H.d.A.K. (2011). Sustainability Achieved via Energy Efficiency (SAVE). Retrieved 31st May 2017

      [27] Kementerian Tenaga, T.H.d.A.K. (2014a). Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS). from

      [28] Kementerian Tenaga, T.H.d.A.K. (2014b). NATIONAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY ACTION PLAN.

      [29] Kementerian Tenaga, T.H.d.A.K. (2017). Paper 4 - MALAYSIA ENERGY POLICY : Focusing on Sustainable Energy Development and The Way Forward.

      [30] Liu, H., Wang, X., Yang, J., Zhou, X., & Liu, Y. . 2017. The ecological footprint evaluation of low carbon campuses based on life cycle assessment: A case study of Tianjin, China. . Journal of Cleaner Production.

      [31] LOJUNTIN, S.A. (2017). Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) in Malaysia. Paper presented at the BSEEP NATIONAL CONFERENCE 2017, Malaysia.

      [32] MALAYSIA, M.O.F. (2016). 2016 Malaysian Budget.

      [33] Masoso, O.T., & Grobler, L. J. 2010. The dark side of occupants’ behaviour on building energy use. Energy and Buildings, 42(2), 173-177.

      [34] O. Edenhofer, R.P.-M., Y.Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P.Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T.Zwicke, J.C. Minx (Eds.). (2014). Climate Change 2014 Mitigation of Climate Change Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,. In C. U. Press (Ed.).

      [35] Saidur, R. 2009. Energy consumption, energy savings, and emission analysis in Malaysian office buildings. Energy Policy, 37(10), 4104-4113.

      [36] Saidur, R., Hasanuzzaman, M., Mahlia, T.M.I., Rahim, N.A., & Mohammed, H.A. 2011. Chillers energy consumption, energy savings and emission analysis in an institutional buildings. Energy, 36(8), 5233-5238.

      [37] Saidur, R., Hasanuzzaman, M., Yogeswaran, S., Mohammed, H.A., & Hossain, M.S. 2010. An end-use energy analysis in a Malaysian public hospital. Energy, 35(12), 4780-4785.

      [38] Tranformasi Nasional 50 (TN50). (2017). Retrieved December, 2017

      [39] Webber, C.A., Roberson, J. A., McWhinney, M. C., Brown, R. E., Pinckard, M. J., & Busch, J. F. 2006. After-hours power status of office equipment in the USA. Energy, 31(14), 2823-2838.

      [40] Zhou, X., Yan, J., Zhu, J., & Cai, P. . 2013. Survey of energy consumption and energy conservation measures for colleges and universities in Guangdong province. . Energy and Buildings, 66, 112-118.




Article ID: 27870
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.22.27870

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.