Effects of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) antifouling biocide on adult males and females of brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    Elevation of tributyltin (TBT) concentration in marine environment could affect targeted and non-targeted organisms at any lifestage. The present study aimed to determine median lethal concentration (LC50) and morphological effects of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) on adult males and females of brine shrimp (Artemia salina). The adult males and females of A. salina were exposed to different concentration of TBTCl. Morphological condition of every A. salina individuals were observed under a microscope. Results showed the LC50 of TBTCl among adult males of A. salina was 146.99 ng.L-1 and for the females was 94.72 ng.L-1, respectively. The LC50 of TBTCl was significantly different among different sexes. There was also a significant difference in some morphological characters of males and females exposed to different TBTCl concentrations. These morphological changes include their total length, head width, abdominal width, and tail width after the 24hr exposure to TBTCl. These results suggested that suspensions of the TBTCl were toxic to Artemia, most likely due to the formation of benign TBTCl aggregates in water. However, the mortality increased with extended exposure to 24hr. Highest mortality occurred at 200 ng.L-1 TBTCl; 43.33% for male and 90% for female (LC50<150 ng.L-1) for both. Depended on this the female was more sensitive for TBTCl toxicity test when compared to male. These effects were attributed to changes in morphological characteristics of the body A. salina.

  • Keywords

    Organotin; Antifouling Biocide; Artemia salina; Toxicity; Morphology.

  • References

      [1] Abreu-Grobois FA (1987), A review of the genetics of Artemia. Artemia Research and Its Applications 1, 61-99.

      [2] Abubakar A, Mustafa MB, Johari WLW, Zulkifli SZ & Yusuff FBM (2016), Tributyltin (TBT) tolerance of indigenous and non-indigenous bacterial species. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 227, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-016-2946-4.

      [3] Alzieu C (1998), Tributyltin: case study of a chronic contaminant in the coastal environment. Ocean & Coastal Management 40, 23-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0964-5691(98)00036-2.

      [4] Al-Rashdi A (2011), Improving the measurement of butyltin compounds in environmental samples. University of Southampton, Southampton, 190pp.

      [5] Bartley DM & Minchin D (1996), Precautionary approach to the introduction and transfer of aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, Rome, pp. 159-190.

      [6] Bryan GW & Gibbs PE (1991), Impact of low concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on marine organisms: a review. In Metal ecotoxicology: concepts and applications (Newman MC & McIntosh AW, eds.), Lewis Publishers & CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 323-361.

      [7] Bustos-Obregon E & Vargas A (2010), Chronic toxicity bioassay with populations of the crustacean Artemia salina exposed to the organophosphate diazinon. Biological Research 43, 357-362. https://doi.org/10.4067/s0716-97602010000300013.

      [8] Champeau O & Narbonne JF (2006), Effects of tributyltin and 17β-estradiol on immune and lysosomal systems of the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea (M.). Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 21, 323-330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2005.10.007.

      [9] Cima F, Bragadin M & Ballarin L (2008), Toxic effects of new antifouling compounds on tunicate haemocytes: I. Sea-Nine 211™ and chlorothalonil. Aquatic Toxicology 86, 299-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.11.010.

      [10] Davidson B, Valkirs A & Seligman PF (1986), Acute and chronic effects of tributyltin of the mysid Acanthomysis sculpta (Crustacea, Mysidacea). In OCEANS'86, pp. 1219-1225. https://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.1986.1160365.

      [11] Fergusson L (2015), Three Bench-scale tests designed to destroy tributyltin (TBT) in marine sediments from north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology 5, 1-7.

      [12] Goodman LR, Cripe GM, Moody PH & Halsell DG (1988), Acute toxicity of malathion, tetrabromobisphenol-A, and tributyltin chloride to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) of three ages. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 41, 746-753. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02021028.

      [13] Hassanatabar F, Ouraji H, Esmaeili A & Babaei SS (2013), Study of the activities of digestive enzymes, amylase and alkaline phosphatase, in Kutum Larvae, Rutilus frisii kutum fed Artemia nauplii. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 5, 266-270.

      [14] Ismail A, Ferdaus MY & Syaizwan ZZ (2004), Imposex in Thais sp. along the Straits of Malacca. In Proceedings of the First Joint Seminar on Coastal Oceanography, pp. 189-196.

      [15] Kanwar AS (2007), Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) - a marine animal for simple and rapid biological assays. Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine 2, 236-240.

      [16] Kokkali V, Katramados I & Newman JD (2011), Monitoring the effect of metal ions on the mobility of Artemia salina nauplii. Biosensors 1, 36-45. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios1020036.

      [17] Michel P, Averty B, Andral B, Chiffoleau JF & Galgani F (2001), Tributyltin along the coasts of Corsica (Western Mediterranean): a persistent problem. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42, 1128-1132. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00101-1.

      [18] Mohamat-Yusuff F, Sien KW, Johari WLW, Ismail A, Zulkifli SZ & Mustafa M (2014), Potential tributyl-tin (TBT) biodegradation agent in contaminated sediment. Malayan Nature Journal 66, 81-93.

      [19] Mohamat-Yusuff F, Zulkifli SZ & Ismail A (2011), Imposex study on Thais tuberosa from port and non-port areas along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Marine Ecosystem 1(2), 1-9.

      [20] Mohamat-Yusuff F, Zulkifli SZ, Ismail A, Harino H, Yusoff MK & Arai T (2010), Imposex in Thais gradata as a biomarker for TBT contamination on the southern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 211, 443-457. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-009-0314-3.

      [21] Mohamat-Yusuff F, Zulkifli SZ, Otake T, Harino H & Ismail A (2014), Study on a new mechanism of sterilization in imposex affected females of tropical marine neogastropod, Thais sp. Journal of Environmental Biology 35, 995-1003.

      [22] Nunes BS, Carvalho FD, Guilhermino LM & Van Stappen G (2006), Use of the genus Artemia in ecotoxicity testing. Environmental Pollution 144, 453-462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.12.037.

      [23] Ohji M, Takeuchi I, Takahashi S, Tanabe S & Miyazaki N (2002), Differences in the acute toxicities of tributyltin between the Caprellidea and the Gammaridea (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Marine Pollution Bulletin 44, 16-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00146-1.

      [24] Osterberg JS, Darnell KM, Blickley TM, Romano JA & Rittschof D (2012), Acute toxicity and sub-lethal effects of common pesticides in post-larval and juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 424, 5-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2012.05.004.

      [25] Panagoula B, Panayiota M & Iliopoulou-Georgudaki J (2002), Acute toxicity of TBT and Irgarol in Artemia salina. International Journal of Toxicology 21, 231-233. https://doi.org/10.1080/10915810290096360.

      [26] Roozbehfar R, Jamali H & Hematian R (2012), The potential of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) in exploitation of Artemia urmiana in comparison with Daphnia sp. and its mixture. World Applied Science Journal 20, 776-780.

      [27] Rosser W (2010), The effect of alchohol percentage on the development of Artemia salina. Central Virginia Governor’s School, Lynchburg.

      [28] Sahandi J, Jafariyan H, Dehghan M, Adineh H & Shohreh P (2012), Direct inoculation of Bacillus to rearing fish tanks effecton growth performance of two carp species fed with Artemia sp. World Applied Science Journal 20, 687-690.

      [29] Shaala NMA, Zulkifli SZ, Ismail A, Azmai MNA & Mohamat-Yusuff F (2015a), Selected morphological changes in nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) after tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) exposure. World Applied Science Journal 33, 1334-1340.

      [30] Shaala NMA, Zulkifli SZ, Ismail A, Azmai MNA & Mohamat-Yusuff F (2015b), Lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and effects of Diuron on morphology of brine shrimp Artemia salina (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) Nauplii. Procedia Environmental Sciences 30, 279-284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2015.10.050.

      [31] Sorgeloos P, Baeza-Mesa M, Bossuyt E, Bruggeman E, Dobbeleir J, Versichele D, Laviña E & Bernardino A (1980), Culture of Artemia on rice bran: the conversion of a waste-product into highly nutritive animal protein. Aquaculture 21, 393-396. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(80)90075-7.

      [32] Toi HT, Boeckx P, Sorgeloos P, Bossier P & Van Stappen G (2013), Bacteria contribute to Artemia nutrition in algae-limited conditions: A laboratory study. Aquaculture 388, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.01.005.

      [33] Valkirs AO, Davidson BM & Seligman PF (1987), Sublethal growth effects and mortality to marine bivalves from long-term exposure to tributyltin. Chemosphere 16, 201-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(87)90124-X.

      [34] Vanhaecke P, Persoone G, Claus C & Sorgeloos P (1981), Proposal for a short-term toxicity test with Artemia nauplii. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 5, 382-387. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-6513(81)90012-9.

      [35] Varó I, Navarro JC, Amat F & Guilhermino L (2002), Characterisation of cholinesterases and evaluation of the inhibitory potential of chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos to Artemia salina and Artemia parthenogenetica. Chemosphere 48, 563-569. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00075-9.

      [36] Varó I, Redón S, Garcia-Roger EM, Amat F, Guinot D, Serrano R & Navarro J (2015), Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana. Aquatic Toxicology 161, 208-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.02.008.

      [37] Verslycke T, Poelmans S, De Wasch K, Vercauteren J, Devos C, Moens L, Sandra P, Brabander HFD & Janssen CR (2003), Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 2030-2036. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620220910.

      [38] Zulkifli SZ, Aziz FZA, Ajis SZM & Ismail A (2014), Nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) as a potential toxicity testing organism for heavy metals contamination. In From Sources to Solution (Aris AZ, Tengku Ismail TH, Harun R, Abdullah AM, Ishak MY, eds.), Springer, Singapore, pp. 233-237. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-4560-70-2_43.




Article ID: 7584
DOI: 10.14419/ijbr.v5i1.7584

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.