Evaluation of the toxic influence of vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) and treatment with aqueous extracts of cinnamon or anise on lipid profile and liver functions of female wistar rats

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    The toxic effects of vitamin E and its treatment with aqueous extracts of Cinnamon or anise on lipid profile and liver functions of female wistar rats were examined for six weeks during September 2016 at labs in al-Neelain University. 18 rats were divided into six groups: 1. negative control group (sunflower oil), 2. Positive control group and rest groups given (1500 mg/Kg/BW/day of Vitamin E). After two hours, the four treated groups received a low dose (2.13g/Kg) and a high dose (3.20g/Kg) 20g/Kg from Cinnamon aqueous extract (CAE) and Anise aqueous extract (AAE). At the end rats were sacrificed then serum and liver tissues were analyzed. Vitamin E toxic dose had caused a significant increase in serum Triglycerides (TG), Alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels, while it decreased the levels of High-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and Aspartate amino transferase (AST). All treatments decreased TG and ALT levels. CAE low dose significantly increased TC, LDL and HDL levels. CAE high dose caused a significant decrease in AST, TC, and LDL. Both doses of AAE, caused significant increases on AST levels, and only anise low dose caused a significant decrease on TC and LDL levels. Vitamin E toxic dose caused severe fatty change in liver histology, which was near normal in both doses of CAE with a small necrosis in a low dose. Only AAE low dose normalized the liver. To conclude Vitamin E oral administration with a dose of (1500 mg/Kg) induced liver injury with an elevation in ALT and TG levels, which was significantly ameliorated by both treatments. Cinnamon was better than anise in ameliorating the toxicity. Cinnamon high dose was better than Cinnamon low dose; in contrast anise low dose was better than Anise high dose.

  • Keywords

    Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate); Cinnamon Aqueous Extract (CAE); Anise Aqueous Extract (AAE); Lipid Profile; Liver Enzymes, Liver Histology; Wistar Rats.

  • References

      [1] Aboelnaga SMH. (2015). Effect of Some Levels of Cardamom, Clove and Anise on Hepatotoxicity in Rats Caused by CCL4. World Applied Sciences Journal, 33 (6): 854-865.

      [2] Al-Ismail K M. &Aburjai T. (2004). Antioxidant activity of water and alcohol extracts of chamomile flowers, Anise seeds and Dill seeds. Journal of the science of food and agriculture, 84 (2): 173-178.https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1625.

      [3] Bendich A. &Machlin L. J. (1988). Safety of oral intake of vitamin E.Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 48:612-619.

      [4] Bjelakovic G., Nikolova D., and Gluud C. (2014). Antioxidant supplements and mortality. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition Metabolic Care, 17(1):40-4. [pubmed abstract]

      [5] Cengiz N., Özbekb H., Himc A. (2008). Hepatoprotective Effects of Pimpinellaanisum Seed Extract in Rats. Pharmacologyonline, 3: 870-874.

      [6] Ciftci M., Simsek UG., Yuce A., Yilmaz O., and Dalkilic B. (2010). Effects of dietary antibiotic and Cinnamon oil supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities, cholesterol levels and fatty acid compositions of serum and meat in Broiler Chickens. ActaVeterinaria Brno, 79(1): 33–40.https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201079010033.

      [7] De Bandt M., Grossin M., Driss F., Pincemail J., Babin-Chevaye C., and Pasquier C. (2002). Vitamin E Uncouples Joint Destruction and Clinical Inflammation in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis and rheumatism, 46 (2):522–532.https://doi.org/10.1002/art.10085.

      [8] Eidi A., Mortazavi P., Bazargan M., Zaringhalam J. (2012). Hepatoprotective activity of Cinnamon ethanolic extract against CCL4-induced liver injury in Rats. EXCLI Journal, 11:495-507

      [9] ElangoG., Venkataraman DD., Rao VS., and Kiran RVS. (2015). Hypervitaminosis. International Journal of Biomedical Research, 6(3): 151-154.https://doi.org/10.7439/ijbr.v6i3.1735.

      [10] El-Sayed MGA., Elkomy A., Samer S., and elbanna AH. (2015). Hepatoprotective effect of Pimpinellaanisum and Foeniculumvulgare against carbon tetrachloride induced fibrosis in Rats. World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, 4(6):78-88.P. XuState Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China

      [11] Search for other works by this author on:Oxford Academic, PubMed, Google Scholar

      [12]X. D.GullapalliHS,Avinash P., TekadeNH, andGullapall I (2013). Effects of Consumption of Cinnamon on Blood Glucose and Lipid profile of the Patients of Type 2 Diabetes. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences (SJAMS), 1(2):28-32.

      [13] Hathcock JN., and GriffithsJC. (2014). Vitamin and mineral safety. Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), Washington, D.C., 3rd edition, 39-48.

      [14] Huang HY,AppelLJ, Croft KD, Miller ER, Mori TA, and Puddey IB. (2002). Effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on in vivo lipid peroxidation: results of a randomized controlled trial. Am J ClinNutr, 76:549–55.

      [15] Ismail NS, (2014). Protective effects of aqueous extracts of Cinnamon and Ginger Herbs against Obesity and diabetes in obese diabetic Rat. World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences, 9 (2): 145-153.

      [16] Klein EA., Thompson IM., Tangen CM., Crowley JJ., Lucia MS., Goodman PJ., Minasian LM., Ford LG., Parnes HL., Gaziano JM., Karp DD., Lieber MM., Walther PJ., Klotz L., Parsons JK., Chin JL., Darke AK., Lippman SM., Goodman GE., Meyskens F L., and Baker L H. (2011). Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA, (14):1549-56. [Pubmed-abstract].https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2011.1437.

      [17] LeboldM. and Traber O. (2014) Interactions between alpha-tocopherol polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipoxygenases during embryogenesis. Free RadicBiol Med., 66:1-16.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.07.039.

      [18] Longe AO., Momoh J., Adepoju PA. (2015). Effects of Cinnamon aqueous extract on blood glucose level, liver biomarker enzymes, heamatological and lipid profile parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic male albino Rats. European Scientific Journal, 1: 418-426

      [19] Maya W., Mayur K., and Ashar S. (2012). Pharmaceutical Profile of Alpha-Tocopherol – A Brief Review. International journal of pharmaceutical and chemical sciences, 1 (3):1023-1039.

      [20] Morgan AM., El-Ballal SS., El-Bialy BE, and EL-Borai NB. (2014). Studies on the potential protective effect of cinnamon against bisphenol A- and octylphenol-induced oxidative stress in male albino rats. Toxicology Reports, 1 (2014): 92–101https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.04.003.

      [21] Nichols DK., Wolff MJ, Phillips LG., and Montali R.J. (1989). Coagulopathy in pink-backed pelicans pelecanusrefescens associated with hypervitaminosis E. Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine, 20:57-61.

      [22] Ozdemir S., Ayaz M., Tuncer T., Ugur M., Turan B. (2003). Vegetable oils used as vitamin E vehicle affect the electrical activity of the Rat heart, Physiol. Res. 52: 767-771.

      [23] Pour HA., Sis NM., Razlighi SN., Azar M.S., Babazadeh MH., Maddah MT., Reazei N., Namvari M.(2011). Effects of vitamin E on ruminant animal. Annals of Biological Research, 2 (4):244-251.

      [24] Rahman S., Begum H., Rahman Z., Ara F., Iqbal MJ., and Yousuf AKM., (2013). Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) as a lipid lowering agent on hypercholesterolemic rats.Journal of Enam Medical College, 3(2):94–98.https://doi.org/10.3329/jemc.v3i2.16132.

      [25] Rajeshwari U., Shobha I., and Andallu B. (2011). Comparison of aniseeds and coriander seeds for antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Spatula DD., 1 (1): 9-16.https://doi.org/10.5455/spatula.20110106123144.

      [26] Rao PV. andGan SH. (2014). Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014: 1-12https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/642942.

      [27] SCF (2003). Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Vitamin E.European commission health & consumer protection directorate-general Brussels – Belgium, 1-18.

      [28] Shojaii A., and Fard, MA, (2012). Review of Pharmacological Properties and Chemical Constituents of Pimpinellaanisum. International Scholarly Research Network Pharmaceutics2012: 1-8

      [29] Singh G., Kapoor IPS., Singh P., de Heluani CS., and Catalan CAN. (2008). Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of essential oil and oleoresins from anise seeds (Pimpinellaanisum L.). International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics, 2(3):122–130.

      [30] Vatassery GT., Fahn S., and Kuskowski MA. (1998). Alpatocopherol in CSF of subjects taking high dose vitamin E in the DATATOP study, Neurology.50 (6) 1900-1902. [PubMed-abstract].Search for other works by this author on:OxfordAcademicPubMedGoogle Scholar.https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.50.6.1900.

      [31] Wheldon GH., Bhatt A., Keller P., and Hummler H. (1983). D, 1-alpha-Tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E): a long term toxicity and carcinogenicity study in rats. Int J VitamNutr Res, 53(3):287-96. [PubMed - abstract].




Article ID: 8315
DOI: 10.14419/ijm.v5i2.8315

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.