Gravitation near the Schwarzschild radius


  • D. L. Khokhlov Sumy State University





Compact Object, Free Fall Pressure, Gravitation, Proton Decay, Schwarzschild Radius.


The problem of gravitation near the Schwarzschild radius is addressed. The pressure due to free fall velocity is introduced. At the Schwarz-schild radius, this pressure produces the force balancing the gravity thus stopping the collapse of the matter. The minimum radius of the source of gravity is defined as a radius at which the proton reaches the Planck energy. The compact object as a thin shell at the minimum radius is considered. The proton is assumed to decay at the Planck scale into positron and hypothetical Planck neutrinos. Under accretion onto the compact object, half the protons decay, and the other protons retain at the minimum radius.




[1] Barbieri J & Chapline G (2012) Signature for the absence of an event horizon. Physics Letters B 709, 114–117.

[2] Chapline G (2003) Quantum phase transitions and the failure of classical general relativity. International Journal of Modern Physics A, 18, 3587–3590.

[3] Corda C & Mosquera Cuesta HJ (2011) Irreversible gravitational collapse: black stars or black holes? Hadronic Journal 34, 149–159.

[4] Georgi H & Glashow S (1974) Unity of all elementary-particle forces. Physical Review Letters 32, 438–441.

[5] Khokhlov DL (2011) Gravitational wave in the theory with the universal charge. Open Astronomy Journal 4, SI 1, 151–153.

[6] Khokhlov DL (2014) Constraints on the decay of the protons falling onto Sgr A*. Physics Letters B 729, 1–2.

[7] Khokhlov DL (2015) Dark matter radiation from Sgr A*. Astrophysics and Space Science 360, 27.

[8] Khokhlov DL (2017) Energy of the particle falling onto the surface of the gravastar. International Journal of Modern Physics and Application 4, 8–11.

[9] Khokhlov DL (2018) Model of the galaxy with hot dark matter. Open Astronomy 27, 294–302.

[10] Khokhlov DL (2020a) Planck neutrinos as ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Open Astronomy 29, 40–46.

[11] Khokhlov DL (2020b) The hot dark matter model: Further investigation. Odessa Astronomical Publications 33, 11–17.

[12] Mazur P & Mottola E (2004) Gravitational vacuum condensate stars. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101, 9545–9550.

[13] Misner CW, Thorne KS, Wheeler JA (1973) Gravitation. Freeman, San Francisco.

[14] Prantzos N et al. (2011) The 511 keV emission from positron annihilation in the Galaxy. Reviews of Modern Physics 83, 1001–1056.

[15] Trimble V (1987) Existence and nature of dark matter in the universe. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 25, 425–472.

View Full Article: