Is the expansion of universe accelerating or the Photons decelerating?

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
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  • Abstract


    Astronomical observations of the cosmological red-shift are currently interpreted in terms of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’, at the rate of H0 c; here H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c is the speed of light. Whereas a straight-forward derivation presented here suggests that: rather it is the photon which is decelerating, at the rate of H0 c. Such a deceleration of photons can be caused by virtual electrons, positrons and pi-mesons, contained in the extra galactic quantum vacuum, because: they do have gravitational-acceleration of the same order as H0 c at their “surfaces”; or by decay of a photon into a lighter photon and a particle of mass h H0 / c2. Tired-light interpretations of the cosmological red-shift’ were so far considered as not compatible with the observations of ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’; so in a paper titled: “Wave-theoretical insight into the relativistic ‘length-contraction’ and ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’” (Tank, Hasmukh K. 2013), it has been already shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’.  Therefore, we now need not to remain confined to the Big-Bang model of cosmology.


  • Keywords


    Cosmology; Cosmological Red-Shift; Accelerated Expansion of the Universe; Steady-State-Cosmology.

  • References


      [1] Tank Hasmukh K., (2013) "Wave-theoretical insight into the relativistic length-contraction and time-dilation of super-nova light-curves" Adv. Studies Theor. Phys., Vol. 7, no. 20, 971–976 http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/astp.2013.39102.

      [2] Martin Lopez-Corredoira (2014) "Alcock-Paczynski Cosmolgical test" Astrophysical Journal Vol. 781(2) DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/781/2/96 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/781/2/96.

      [3] Ling Jun Wang, (2014) "On the Flatness of Spacetime" Physics Essays, Volume 27, No. 3.

      [4] Anderson, J. D., Laing, P. A., Lau, E. L., Liu, A. S., Nieto M. M., and Turyshev, S. G. (1998) "Indication, from Pioneer 10, 11, Galileo and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration". Phys. Rev. Letters. 81 2858-2861 [(Comment by Katz J.I.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1892 (1999); Reply: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1893 (1999)]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.2858.

      [5] Sivaram, C. (1994) Astrophysics and Space science 215, 185-189 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00660076.


 

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Article ID: 4531
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijaa.v3i1.4531




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