Simple explanation for the â€˜cosmological red-shiftâ€™ and itâ€™s evidence
Keywords:Cosmology, Astrophysics, Cosmological Red Shift, Pioneer Anomaly.
We first find here that the ratio of: (loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon) and (loss in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D) remains equal to the famous ratio (G me mp) / e2 leading us towards a possibility that â€˜cosmological red-shiftâ€™ may be due to gravitational effect. Also the ratio h H0 / me c2= (G me mp) / e2. So we consider three different possibilities how the reduction in energy of the photon can be understood in terms of gravitational effects; namely: (i) absorption and re-emission of intergalactic photons by the â€˜virtual particlesâ€™ in space, (ii) photons have to climb the gravitational potential well produced by their own energy, and (iii) the quantum jumps of the photons causing repeated productions and collapses of gravitational fields giving rise to gravitational waves or ripples. For the purpose of comparison we express the â€˜cosmological red shiftâ€™ as deceleration of the photon. Then it is argued that if such a deceleration is true for a chunk of energy called photon, then it must be true for every particle of matter too. Strikingly, the decelerations experienced by the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses, as carefully measured by Anderson J.D. ET. Al. match perfectly with the deceleration of the â€˜cosmologically red-shifting photonsâ€™; thus providing supportive evidence for the simple explanation proposed here.
 Tank, Hasmukh K. â€œNew mechanism for the cosmological red-shif.â€International Journal of Advanced Astronomy, Vol.3 (1) 2015, pp 24-25.http://dx.doi.org/10.14419/ijaa.v3i1.4391.
 Tank, Hasmukh K. â€œSome clues to understand MOND and the accelerated expansion of the universeâ€ Astrophysics and Space Science (December 2011) Vol 336, issue 2, pp 341-343 First Online 16 September 2011.
 Anderson, J D.; Laing, P. A.; Lau, E. L.; Liu, A. S.; Nieto, M. M.; Turyshev, S. G. (1998). "Indication, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration". Physical Review Letters 81 (14): 2858â€“2861. ArXiv: gr-qc/9808081. Bibcode:1998PhRvL..81.2858A. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.2858.
 Anderson, J D.; Laing, P. A.; Lau, E. L.; Liu, A. S.; Nieto, M. M.; Turyshev, S. G. (2002). "Study of the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11". Physical Review D 65 (8): 082004. ArXiv: gr-qc/0104064. Bibcode:2002PhRvD..65h2004A. â€œA lengthy survey of several years of debate by the authors of the original 1998 paper documenting the anomaly. The authors conclude, "Until more is known, we must admit that the most likely cause of this effect is an unknown systematic. (We ourselves are divided as to whether 'gas leaks' or 'heat' is this 'most likely cause.')".http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.65.082004.
 Tank, Hasmukh K. â€œAn explanation for the large number 1040 in astrophysics and ...â€ Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy, Vol. 63 A, No.6, (1997), pp. 469-474.